Abstract

In order to determine the limits of the biologically safe maximum allowable levels of pulsed terahertz (THz) radiation, a prototype of apparatus has been developed for the irradiation of cell cultures immersed in a liquid medium with broad-band THz radiation in the 0.05–1.2 THz frequency range. The action of THz radiation on the functional activity of the cells of a number of biological cultures, including mouse thymocytes and splenocytes, has been investigated. This was evaluated by means of flow-through cytometry, using fluorescence-intensity analysis of DNA-binding stains. It is shown that THz radiation with a mean power density of up to 10  μW/cm<sup>2</sup> and a time of action of 1 min has no effect on the variation of the functional activity of the cells. No statistically reliable variations were detected in the relationship of living cells and cells at different stages of apoptosis or in the distribution of cells over the phases of the cellular cycle. It is concluded that THz radiation with such characteristics can be used for medical spectroscopy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  2. T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  5. G. J.  Wilmink, J. E.  Grundt, “Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32, 1074 (2011).
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  10. V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].
  11. M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).
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  13. L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).
  14. S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).
  15. P.  Pozarowski, Z.  Darzynkiewicz, “Analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry,” Methods Mol. Biol. 281, 301 (2004).
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2013 (1)

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

2011 (1)

G. J.  Wilmink, J. E.  Grundt, “Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32, 1074 (2011).

2010 (2)

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

2006 (1)

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

2005 (1)

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

2004 (1)

P.  Pozarowski, Z.  Darzynkiewicz, “Analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry,” Methods Mol. Biol. 281, 301 (2004).

2003 (1)

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

1995 (1)

T.  Idziorek, J.  Estaquier, F.  De Bels, J. C.  Ameisen, “YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability,” J. Immunol. Methods 185, 249 (1995).

Alcaraz, L.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Ameisen, J. C.

T.  Idziorek, J.  Estaquier, F.  De Bels, J. C.  Ameisen, “YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability,” J. Immunol. Methods 185, 249 (1995).

Balbekin, N. S.

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

Bent, J.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Bernhard, J.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Bespalov, V. G.

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Bowers, K.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Braddock, M.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Bykhovskaia, M.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T. W.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Darzynkiewicz, Z.

P.  Pozarowski, Z.  Darzynkiewicz, “Analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry,” Methods Mol. Biol. 281, 301 (2004).

Z.  Darzynkiewicz, X.  Huang, “Analysis of cellular DNA content by flow cytometry,” in Current Protocols in Immunology, R.  Coico, ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2004), Chap. 5, Unit 5.7.

De Bels, F.

T.  Idziorek, J.  Estaquier, F.  De Bels, J. C.  Ameisen, “YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability,” J. Immunol. Methods 185, 249 (1995).

Estaquier, J.

T.  Idziorek, J.  Estaquier, F.  De Bels, J. C.  Ameisen, “YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability,” J. Immunol. Methods 185, 249 (1995).

Fagura, M.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Furber, M.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Gelmont, B. L.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

Glisic-Milosavljevic, S.

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

Globus, T. R.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gradziel, M.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

Grundt, J. E.

G. J.  Wilmink, J. E.  Grundt, “Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32, 1074 (2011).

Hesler, J.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horn, C. B.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Huang, X.

Z.  Darzynkiewicz, X.  Huang, “Analysis of cellular DNA content by flow cytometry,” in Current Protocols in Immunology, R.  Coico, ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2004), Chap. 5, Unit 5.7.

Humphreys, K.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

Ibey, B. L.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Idziorek, T.

T.  Idziorek, J.  Estaquier, F.  De Bels, J. C.  Ameisen, “YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability,” J. Immunol. Methods 185, 249 (1995).

Jailwala, P.

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

Jana, S.

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

Jiang, L. H.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Khromova, T.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kipenko, A. V.

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

Kozlov, A. S.

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Ratushnyak, A. K.  Pertov, A. S.  Kozlov, T. A.  Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SIBIRCON, 2008, pp. 210–211.

Krylov, B. V.

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

Krylov, V. N.

V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Lanigan, W.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

Laurent, C.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Lawson, M.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Lopatina, E. V.

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

Loughran, J. P.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

Mortimore, M.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Murphy, J. A.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

O’Sullivan, C.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

Olshevskaya, J. S.

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Ratushnyak, A. K.  Pertov, A. S.  Kozlov, T. A.  Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SIBIRCON, 2008, pp. 210–211.

Panin, A. N.

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

Penniyainen, V. A.

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

Pertov, A. K.

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Ratushnyak, A. K.  Pertov, A. S.  Kozlov, T. A.  Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SIBIRCON, 2008, pp. 210–211.

Petrov, A. K.

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

Pozarowski, P.

P.  Pozarowski, Z.  Darzynkiewicz, “Analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry,” Methods Mol. Biol. 281, 301 (2004).

Putilin, S. É.

V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Ratushnyak, A. S.

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Ratushnyak, A. K.  Pertov, A. S.  Kozlov, T. A.  Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SIBIRCON, 2008, pp. 210–211.

Rivest, B. D.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Roach, W. P.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Roberson, D.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Roth, C. L.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Rovensky, J.

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

Samuels, A. C.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, H. M.

H. M.  Shapiro, Practical Flow Cytometry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, N.J., 2003).

Smolyanskaya, O. A.

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

Sobakinskaya, E. A.

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

Stasel’ko, D. I.

V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Stokes, L.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Surprenant, A.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Theaker, J.

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Tsurkan, M. V.

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

Vaks, V. L.

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

Vincelette, R. L.

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Ward, T.

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

Waukau, J.

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

Wilmink, G. J.

G. J.  Wilmink, J. E.  Grundt, “Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32, 1074 (2011).

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Woolard, D. L.

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X. C.  Zhang, J.  Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, New York, 2009).

Zapara, T. A.

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Ratushnyak, A. K.  Pertov, A. S.  Kozlov, T. A.  Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SIBIRCON, 2008, pp. 210–211.

Zhang, X. C.

X. C.  Zhang, J.  Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, New York, 2009).

Br. J. Pharmacol. (1)

L.  Stokes, L. H.  Jiang, L.  Alcaraz, J.  Bent, K.  Bowers, M.  Fagura, M.  Furber, M.  Mortimore, M.  Lawson, J.  Theaker, C.  Laurent, M.  Braddock, A.  Surprenant, “Characterization of a selective and potent antagonist of human P2X(7) receptors, AZ11645373,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 880 (2006).

Cell Prolif. (1)

S.  Glisic-Milosavljevic, J.  Waukau, S.  Jana, P.  Jailwala, J.  Rovensky, S.  Ghosh, “Comparison of apoptosis and mortality measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using multiple methods,” Cell Prolif. 38, 301 (2005).

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

T. R.  Globus, D. L.  Woolard, T.  Khromova, T. W.  Crowe, M.  Bykhovskaia, B. L.  Gelmont, J.  Hesler, A. C.  Samuels, “THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, No. 2, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Immunol. Methods (1)

T.  Idziorek, J.  Estaquier, F.  De Bels, J. C.  Ameisen, “YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability,” J. Immunol. Methods 185, 249 (1995).

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

G. J.  Wilmink, J. E.  Grundt, “Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32, 1074 (2011).

Methods Mol. Biol. (1)

P.  Pozarowski, Z.  Darzynkiewicz, “Analysis of cell cycle by flow cytometry,” Methods Mol. Biol. 281, 301 (2004).

Opt. Spektrosk. (2)

M. V.  Tsurkan, N. S.  Balbekin, E. A.  Sobakinskaya, A. N.  Panin, V. L.  Vaks, “Terahertz spectroscopy of DNA,” Opt. Spektrosk. 114, 981 (2013) [Opt. Spectrosc. 114, 894 (2013)].
[CrossRef]

V. G.  Bespalov, V. N.  Krylov, S. É.  Putilin, D. I.  Stasel’ko, “Lasing in the far-IR spectral range under femtosecond optical excitation of the InAs semiconductor in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) [Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. V.  Tsurkan, O. A.  Smolyanskaya, V. G.  Bespalov, V. A.  Penniyainen, A. V.  Kipenko, E. V.  Lopatina, B. V.  Krylov, “Changing growth of neuritis of sensory ganglions by terahertz radiation,” Proc. SPIE 8261, 82610S (2012).

G. J.  Wilmink, B. L.  Ibey, C. L.  Roth, R. L.  Vincelette, B. D.  Rivest, C. B.  Horn, J.  Bernhard, D.  Roberson, W. P.  Roach, “Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz-specific gene expression signatures,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620K (2010).

Vest. Novosib. State Univ. (1)

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Kozlov, A. K.  Petrov, T. A.  Zapara, A. S.  Ratushnyak, “Cell membrane permeability under the influence of terahertz laser radiation,” Vest. Novosib. State Univ. 5, No. 4, 177 (2010).

Other (5)

X. C.  Zhang, J.  Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, New York, 2009).

K.  Humphreys, J. P.  Loughran, M.  Gradziel, W.  Lanigan, T.  Ward, J. A.  Murphy, C.  O’Sullivan, “Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering,” in Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 1302–1305.

H. M.  Shapiro, Practical Flow Cytometry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, N.J., 2003).

J. S.  Olshevskaya, A. S.  Ratushnyak, A. K.  Pertov, A. S.  Kozlov, T. A.  Zapara, “Effect of terahertz electromagnetic waves on neurons systems,” in Proceedings IEEE Region 8 International Conference on Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SIBIRCON, 2008, pp. 210–211.

Z.  Darzynkiewicz, X.  Huang, “Analysis of cellular DNA content by flow cytometry,” in Current Protocols in Immunology, R.  Coico, ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2004), Chap. 5, Unit 5.7.

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