Abstract

This paper proposes to include the construction and analysis of the difference spectrum of the modes in the usual procedure of determining the parameters of planar waveguides from the results of measurements of the spectrum of the waveguide modes. It is shown that analyzing the difference spectrum of the modes makes it possible to efficiently detect erroneous results of the measurements and to select the most suitable technique for calculating the refractive-index distribution of the test sample. Using the results of the analysis increases the reliability of reconstructing the profile of a planar lightguide and of the parameters of the kinetics of the process of forming a gradient layer determined from this analysis. This is especially useful when creating waveguides based on new materials.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics (Mir, Moscow, 1978; Springer Verlag, New York, 1979).
  2. M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, New York, 1981; Mir, Moscow, 1984).
  3. J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, “Optical-waveguide refractive-index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Mathey and P. Jullien, “Numerical analysis of a WKB inverse method in view of index-profile reconstruction in diffused waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 122, 127 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. K. Evstrop’ev, Diffusion Processes in Glass (Stroiizdat, Leningrad, 1970).
  6. K. A. Landa and G. T. Petrovski?, Amorphous Planar Waveguides(Krasnoyarsk. Univ., Krasnoyarsk, 1987).
  7. J. Linares, X. Prieto, and C. Montero, “A novel refractive-index profile for characterization of nonlinear diffusion processes and planar waveguides in glass,” Opt. Mater. 3, 229 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. I. Boltaks, Diffusion in Semiconductors (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1961).
  10. S. D. Gertsriken and I. Ya. Dekhtyar, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys in the Solid Phase (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960).
  11. R. Sh. Malkovich, The Mathematics of Diffusion in Semiconductors(Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).
  12. H. Mehrer, Diffusion in Solids: Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-controlled Processes (Springer, London, 2007; Intellekt, Dolgoprudnyi, 2011).
  13. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956).
  14. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, and A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 359 (1994).

2006 (1)

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Mathey and P. Jullien, “Numerical analysis of a WKB inverse method in view of index-profile reconstruction in diffused waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 122, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. Linares, X. Prieto, and C. Montero, “A novel refractive-index profile for characterization of nonlinear diffusion processes and planar waveguides in glass,” Opt. Mater. 3, 229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, and A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 359 (1994).

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Adams, M. J.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, New York, 1981; Mir, Moscow, 1984).

Boltaks, B. I.

B. I. Boltaks, Diffusion in Semiconductors (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1961).

Caccavale, F.

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, and A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 359 (1994).

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Crank, J.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956).

Dekhtyar, I. Ya.

S. D. Gertsriken and I. Ya. Dekhtyar, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys in the Solid Phase (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960).

Evstrop’ev, K. K.

K. K. Evstrop’ev, Diffusion Processes in Glass (Stroiizdat, Leningrad, 1970).

Gertsriken, S. D.

S. D. Gertsriken and I. Ya. Dekhtyar, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys in the Solid Phase (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960).

Gonella, F.

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, and A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 359 (1994).

Heidrich, P. F.

Jullien, P.

P. Mathey and P. Jullien, “Numerical analysis of a WKB inverse method in view of index-profile reconstruction in diffused waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 122, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Landa, K. A.

K. A. Landa and G. T. Petrovski?, Amorphous Planar Waveguides(Krasnoyarsk. Univ., Krasnoyarsk, 1987).

Linares, J.

J. Linares, X. Prieto, and C. Montero, “A novel refractive-index profile for characterization of nonlinear diffusion processes and planar waveguides in glass,” Opt. Mater. 3, 229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lipovskii, A. A.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malkovich, R. Sh.

R. Sh. Malkovich, The Mathematics of Diffusion in Semiconductors(Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

Mathey, P.

P. Mathey and P. Jullien, “Numerical analysis of a WKB inverse method in view of index-profile reconstruction in diffused waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 122, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mehrer, H.

H. Mehrer, Diffusion in Solids: Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-controlled Processes (Springer, London, 2007; Intellekt, Dolgoprudnyi, 2011).

Montero, C.

J. Linares, X. Prieto, and C. Montero, “A novel refractive-index profile for characterization of nonlinear diffusion processes and planar waveguides in glass,” Opt. Mater. 3, 229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrovskii, G. T.

K. A. Landa and G. T. Petrovski?, Amorphous Planar Waveguides(Krasnoyarsk. Univ., Krasnoyarsk, 1987).

Prieto, X.

J. Linares, X. Prieto, and C. Montero, “A novel refractive-index profile for characterization of nonlinear diffusion processes and planar waveguides in glass,” Opt. Mater. 3, 229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, A.

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, and A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 359 (1994).

Svistunov, D. V.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tagantsev, D. K.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, J. M.

Zhurihina, V. V.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

F. Gonella, F. Caccavale, and A. Quaranta, “Secondary ion mass spectrometry applied to the study of ion-exchanged glass waveguides with a few modes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 359 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Mathey and P. Jullien, “Numerical analysis of a WKB inverse method in view of index-profile reconstruction in diffused waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 122, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (2)

J. Linares, X. Prieto, and C. Montero, “A novel refractive-index profile for characterization of nonlinear diffusion processes and planar waveguides in glass,” Opt. Mater. 3, 229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, and V. V. Zhurihina, “Diffusion nonlinearity in aluminum–boron silicate glasses for ion-exchanged GRIN structures: A simple technique to evaluate diffusion nonlinearity of glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28, 276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

B. I. Boltaks, Diffusion in Semiconductors (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1961).

S. D. Gertsriken and I. Ya. Dekhtyar, Diffusion in Metals and Alloys in the Solid Phase (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960).

R. Sh. Malkovich, The Mathematics of Diffusion in Semiconductors(Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1999).

H. Mehrer, Diffusion in Solids: Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-controlled Processes (Springer, London, 2007; Intellekt, Dolgoprudnyi, 2011).

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956).

K. K. Evstrop’ev, Diffusion Processes in Glass (Stroiizdat, Leningrad, 1970).

K. A. Landa and G. T. Petrovski?, Amorphous Planar Waveguides(Krasnoyarsk. Univ., Krasnoyarsk, 1987).

T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics (Mir, Moscow, 1978; Springer Verlag, New York, 1979).

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, New York, 1981; Mir, Moscow, 1984).

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