Abstract

This paper discusses modern principles of constructing displays based on liquid crystals, which provide high-contrast images at large viewing angles. The characteristics of displays based on the twist and supertwist effects and the transverse electric-field effect are considered, along with optical compensator films and multidomain vertically oriented structures. Displays with controllable field-of-view angles are described.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  35. G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid-crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa, and K. Kondo, “Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid-crystal display with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L27 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, and K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  42. T. Sigiyama, Y. Toko, T. Hashimoto, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, and S. Kobayashi, “Analytical simulation of electro-optical performance of amorphous and super-multidomain TN LCD,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 919 (1994).
  43. M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, and K. J. Toyne, “Nematic materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for display applications,” Proc. SPIE 3955, 15 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  44. D. Pauluth and K. Tarumi, “Optimization of liquid crystals for television,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 693 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  45. P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematische Flüssigkristalle für Aktiv-Matrix-Displays: design und synthese,” Angew. Chem. 112, 4384 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  46. J. W. Goodby, “The nanoscale engineering of nematic liquid crystals for displays,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1363 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  47. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1077 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  48. S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  49. Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  50. S. E. Hicks, S. P. Hurley, R. S. Zola, and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-stabilized VA mode liquid-crystal display,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 619 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  51. H. Hong, “Analysis of the generation of multi-domain in vertical alignment (VA) mode caused by the fringe field on the side of the lower substrate,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1007 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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  54. N. Yamada, S. Kozaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell mode,” SID Symp. Digest 26, 575 (1995).
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  57. Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing-angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” SID Symp. Digest 36, 1218 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  58. J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing-angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. C. P. Chen, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal design of omnidirectional viewing angle-switching panel,” Opt. Express 15, 17937 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in vertical alignment liquid-crystal display by optimizing pixel structure and controlling LC orientation,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 756 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  61. A. Samarin, “Technologies of LC displays with a controllable viewing angle,” Kompon. Tekhno. No. 8, 15 (2008).
  62. H. Ong, O. Woodard, N. Cheong, and C. Reese, “A new normally black, high-contrast, wide symmetrical-viewing-angle AMLCD for military head-mounted displays (HMDs) and other viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 301 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  63. O. Woodard, J. Lo, M. Khandaker, J. Gassel, F. Herrmann, H. Ong, B. Y. Tsaur, and C. Reese, “A full-color SXGA TN AMLCD for military head-mounted displays and viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid-crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodby, “The nanoscale engineering of nematic liquid crystals for displays,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Hicks, S. P. Hurley, R. S. Zola, and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-stabilized VA mode liquid-crystal display,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Hong, “Analysis of the generation of multi-domain in vertical alignment (VA) mode caused by the fringe field on the side of the lower substrate,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K.-H. Kim and J.-K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid-crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1, No. 1, 29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing-angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Samarin, “Technologies of LC displays with a controllable viewing angle,” Kompon. Tekhno. No. 8, 15 (2008).

O. Woodard, J. Lo, M. Khandaker, J. Gassel, F. Herrmann, H. Ong, B. Y. Tsaur, and C. Reese, “A full-color SXGA TN AMLCD for military head-mounted displays and viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

C. P. Chen, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal design of omnidirectional viewing angle-switching panel,” Opt. Express 15, 17937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in vertical alignment liquid-crystal display by optimizing pixel structure and controlling LC orientation,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Lyu, J. Sohn, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Recent trends on patterned vertical alignment (PVA) and fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid-crystal displays for liquid-crystal television applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Sun, H. Ma, and Z. Zhang, “In-plane switching ?-twist liquid-crystal displays,” Proc. SPIE 6030, 60300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Y. Sun, H. Ma, and Z. Zhang, “A super twisted nematic liquid-crystal device based upon in-plane switching,” Proc. SPIE 5632, 267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Extraordinarily high-contrast and wide-view liquid-crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Pauluth and K. Tarumi, “Optimization of liquid crystals for television,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing-angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” SID Symp. Digest 36, 1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Ong, O. Woodard, N. Cheong, and C. Reese, “A new normally black, high-contrast, wide symmetrical-viewing-angle AMLCD for military head-mounted displays (HMDs) and other viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. G. Tomilin, “Advanced display technologies,” Opt. Zh. 70, No. 7, 4 (2003). [J. Opt. Technol. 70, 454 (2003)].

G. G. Nair, D. S. S. Rao, S. K. Prasad, S. Chandrasekhar, and S. Kumar, “Electrooptic and viewing angle characteristics of a display device employing a discotic nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 397, 245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakayoshi, N. Kurahashi, J. Tanno, E. Nishimura, K. Ogawa, and M. Suzuki, “High-transmittance pixel design of in-plane switching TFT LCDs for TVs,” SID Symp. Digest 34, 1100 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

L.-H. Wu, S.-J. Luo, C.-S. Hsu, and S.-T. Wu, “Obliquely tilted discotic phase-compensation films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L869 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematische Flüssigkristalle für Aktiv-Matrix-Displays: design und synthese,” Angew. Chem. 112, 4384 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, and K. J. Toyne, “Nematic materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for display applications,” Proc. SPIE 3955, 15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

T. Toyooka, E. Yoda, T. Yamanashi, and Y. Kobori, “Viewing-angle performance of TN LCD with hybrid aligned nematic film,” Displays 20, No. 5, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Koden, “Wide viewing-angle technologies of TFT LCDs,” Sharp Tech. J. 1, No. 2, 1 (1999).

K. Vermeirsch, A. De Meyere, J. Fornier, and H. De Vleeschouwer, “Viewing angle of liquid-crystal displays: representation on the Poincaré sphere,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2775 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (7)

H. L. Ong, “Improvement of LCD viewing angles by negative birefringence compensation films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid-crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, S.-B. Park, J.-U. Shim, J.-H. Souk, and J. Chen, “New LCD modes for wide-viewing-angle applications,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1085 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saitoh, S. Kimura, K. Kusafuka, and H. Shimizu, “Optically compensated in-plane-switching mode TFT-LCD panel,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, and K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

S. Z. D. Cheng, F. Li, E. P. Savitski, and F. W. Harris, “Molecular design of aromatic polyimide films as uniaxial negative birefringent optical compensators in liquid-crystal displays,” Trends Polym. Sci. 5, 51 (1997).

S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa, and K. Kondo, “Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid-crystal display with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing free, vertically aligned nematic liquid-crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Mori, Y. Itoh, Y. Nishlura, T. Nakamura, and Y. Shinagawa, “Novel optical compensation film for AMLCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 27, 941 (1997).

1996 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Design and fabrication of phase-matched compensation films for LCDs,” SID Appl. Digest 27, 21 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Hasebe, K. Takeuchi, and H. Takatsu, “Properties of novel UV-curable LCs and their retardation films,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, S. Kozaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell mode,” SID Symp. Digest 26, 575 (1995).

1994 (3)

J. P. Eblen, W. I. Gunning, J. Beedy, D. Taber, L. Hale, P. Yeh, and D. Khoshnevisan, “Birefringent compensators for normally white TN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 245 (1994).

S. T. Wu, “Film-compensated homeotropic liquid-crystal cell for direct view display,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5975 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sigiyama, Y. Toko, T. Hashimoto, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, and S. Kobayashi, “Analytical simulation of electro-optical performance of amorphous and super-multidomain TN LCD,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 919 (1994).

1991 (4)

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 739 (1991).

A. Lien, H. Takano, S. Suzuki, and H. Uchida, “The symmetry property of a 90° twisted-nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 37 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyashita, Y. Miyazawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Aoki, and A. Mawatari, “A multicolor wide-viewing angle STN LCD with multiple retarding films,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 743 (1991).

S. Kondo, T. Yamamoto, A. Murayama, H. Hatch, and S. Matsumoto, “A fast-response black and white STN-LCD with retarding film,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 747 (1991).

1986 (1)

R. Van L. Ewyk, I. O’Connor, A. Mosley, A. Cuddy, C. Hilsum, C. Blackburn, J. Griffiths, and F. Jones, “Anisotropic fluorophors for LCDs,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 7, No. 4, 155 (1986).

1984 (1)

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “A new, highly multiplexable liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1021 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Transverse field effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 165 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, H.

T. Miyashita, Y. Miyazawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Aoki, and A. Mawatari, “A multicolor wide-viewing angle STN LCD with multiple retarding films,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 743 (1991).

Aratani, S.

H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, and K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa, and K. Kondo, “Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid-crystal display with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ashizawa, K.

S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa, and K. Kondo, “Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid-crystal display with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Awane, K.

N. Yamada, S. Kozaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell mode,” SID Symp. Digest 26, 575 (1995).

Baur, G.

R. Kiefer, B. Weber, F. Windscheid, and G. Baur, “In-plane switching of nematic liquid crystals,” in Proceedings Japan Displays ’92, 1992, pp. 547–550.

Beedy, J.

J. P. Eblen, W. I. Gunning, J. Beedy, D. Taber, L. Hale, P. Yeh, and D. Khoshnevisan, “Birefringent compensators for normally white TN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 245 (1994).

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R. Van L. Ewyk, I. O’Connor, A. Mosley, A. Cuddy, C. Hilsum, C. Blackburn, J. Griffiths, and F. Jones, “Anisotropic fluorophors for LCDs,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 7, No. 4, 155 (1986).

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
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P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematische Flüssigkristalle für Aktiv-Matrix-Displays: design und synthese,” Angew. Chem. 112, 4384 (2000).
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G. G. Nair, D. S. S. Rao, S. K. Prasad, S. Chandrasekhar, and S. Kumar, “Electrooptic and viewing angle characteristics of a display device employing a discotic nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 397, 245 (2003).
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Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
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Chen, C. P.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
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K.-H. Kim, S.-B. Park, J.-U. Shim, J.-H. Souk, and J. Chen, “New LCD modes for wide-viewing-angle applications,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1085 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.-L.

Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
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S. Z. D. Cheng, F. Li, E. P. Savitski, and F. W. Harris, “Molecular design of aromatic polyimide films as uniaxial negative birefringent optical compensators in liquid-crystal displays,” Trends Polym. Sci. 5, 51 (1997).

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H. Ong, O. Woodard, N. Cheong, and C. Reese, “A new normally black, high-contrast, wide symmetrical-viewing-angle AMLCD for military head-mounted displays (HMDs) and other viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 5442, 301 (2004).
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A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1077 (1998).
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S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
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R. Van L. Ewyk, I. O’Connor, A. Mosley, A. Cuddy, C. Hilsum, C. Blackburn, J. Griffiths, and F. Jones, “Anisotropic fluorophors for LCDs,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 7, No. 4, 155 (1986).

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De Vleeschouwer, H.

Do, H.

S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
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J. P. Eblen, W. I. Gunning, J. Beedy, D. Taber, L. Hale, P. Yeh, and D. Khoshnevisan, “Birefringent compensators for normally white TN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 245 (1994).

Fornier, J.

Fujimura, Y.

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 739 (1991).

Funada, F.

N. Yamada, S. Kozaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell mode,” SID Symp. Digest 26, 575 (1995).

Gassel, J.

O. Woodard, J. Lo, M. Khandaker, J. Gassel, F. Herrmann, H. Ong, B. Y. Tsaur, and C. Reese, “A full-color SXGA TN AMLCD for military head-mounted displays and viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550 (2008).
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J. W. Goodby, “The nanoscale engineering of nematic liquid crystals for displays,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1363 (2011).
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M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, and K. J. Toyne, “Nematic materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for display applications,” Proc. SPIE 3955, 15 (2000).
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R. Van L. Ewyk, I. O’Connor, A. Mosley, A. Cuddy, C. Hilsum, C. Blackburn, J. Griffiths, and F. Jones, “Anisotropic fluorophors for LCDs,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 7, No. 4, 155 (1986).

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P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Gunning, W. I.

J. P. Eblen, W. I. Gunning, J. Beedy, D. Taber, L. Hale, P. Yeh, and D. Khoshnevisan, “Birefringent compensators for normally white TN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 245 (1994).

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Haas, G.

G. Haas, “Angular dependence of liquid-crystal display,” in Eurodisplay (Berlin, 1999), pp. 5–24.

Hale, L.

J. P. Eblen, W. I. Gunning, J. Beedy, D. Taber, L. Hale, P. Yeh, and D. Khoshnevisan, “Birefringent compensators for normally white TN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 245 (1994).

Harris, F. W.

S. Z. D. Cheng, F. Li, E. P. Savitski, and F. W. Harris, “Molecular design of aromatic polyimide films as uniaxial negative birefringent optical compensators in liquid-crystal displays,” Trends Polym. Sci. 5, 51 (1997).

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K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Application of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2005).

Hasegawa, R.

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Application of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2005).

Hashimoto, T.

T. Sigiyama, Y. Toko, T. Hashimoto, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, and S. Kobayashi, “Analytical simulation of electro-optical performance of amorphous and super-multidomain TN LCD,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 919 (1994).

Hatch, H.

S. Kondo, T. Yamamoto, A. Murayama, H. Hatch, and S. Matsumoto, “A fast-response black and white STN-LCD with retarding film,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 747 (1991).

Herrmann, F.

O. Woodard, J. Lo, M. Khandaker, J. Gassel, F. Herrmann, H. Ong, B. Y. Tsaur, and C. Reese, “A full-color SXGA TN AMLCD for military head-mounted displays and viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550 (2008).
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S. E. Hicks, S. P. Hurley, R. S. Zola, and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-stabilized VA mode liquid-crystal display,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 619 (2011).
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Hilsum, C.

R. Van L. Ewyk, I. O’Connor, A. Mosley, A. Cuddy, C. Hilsum, C. Blackburn, J. Griffiths, and F. Jones, “Anisotropic fluorophors for LCDs,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 7, No. 4, 155 (1986).

Hird, M.

M. Hird, J. W. Goodby, and K. J. Toyne, “Nematic materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for display applications,” Proc. SPIE 3955, 15 (2000).
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Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing-angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” SID Symp. Digest 36, 1218 (2005).
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H. Hong, “Analysis of the generation of multi-domain in vertical alignment (VA) mode caused by the fringe field on the side of the lower substrate,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1007 (2011).
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Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
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Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
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Hurley, S. P.

S. E. Hicks, S. P. Hurley, R. S. Zola, and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-stabilized VA mode liquid-crystal display,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iimura, Y.

T. Sigiyama, Y. Toko, T. Hashimoto, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, and S. Kobayashi, “Analytical simulation of electro-optical performance of amorphous and super-multidomain TN LCD,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 919 (1994).

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, T. Kurita, E. Yoda, T. Kaminade, T. Toyooka, and Y. Kobori, “Novel viewing angle compensation films for TN LCDs using a hybrid aligned rod-like LC polymer,” in The Fifth International Display Workshop, 1998, p. 255.

Itoh, N.

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Application of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2005).

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H. Mori, Y. Itoh, Y. Nishlura, T. Nakamura, and Y. Shinagawa, “Novel optical compensation film for AMLCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 27, 941 (1997).

Jang, W.-G.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, E.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in vertical alignment liquid-crystal display by optimizing pixel structure and controlling LC orientation,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. H.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jhun, C. G.

Jones, F.

R. Van L. Ewyk, I. O’Connor, A. Mosley, A. Cuddy, C. Hilsum, C. Blackburn, J. Griffiths, and F. Jones, “Anisotropic fluorophors for LCDs,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 7, No. 4, 155 (1986).

Jyu, J.-J.

J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaminade, T.

K. Inoue, T. Kurita, E. Yoda, T. Kaminade, T. Toyooka, and Y. Kobori, “Novel viewing angle compensation films for TN LCDs using a hybrid aligned rod-like LC polymer,” in The Fifth International Display Workshop, 1998, p. 255.

Kataoka, S.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, K.

T. Sigiyama, Y. Toko, T. Hashimoto, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, and S. Kobayashi, “Analytical simulation of electro-optical performance of amorphous and super-multidomain TN LCD,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 919 (1994).

Kawata, Y.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing-angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” SID Symp. Digest 36, 1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. R.

J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khandaker, M.

O. Woodard, J. Lo, M. Khandaker, J. Gassel, F. Herrmann, H. Ong, B. Y. Tsaur, and C. Reese, “A full-color SXGA TN AMLCD for military head-mounted displays and viewer applications,” Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khoshnevisan, D.

J. P. Eblen, W. I. Gunning, J. Beedy, D. Taber, L. Hale, P. Yeh, and D. Khoshnevisan, “Birefringent compensators for normally white TN LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 245 (1994).

Kiefer, R.

R. Kiefer, B. Weber, F. Windscheid, and G. Baur, “In-plane switching of nematic liquid crystals,” in Proceedings Japan Displays ’92, 1992, pp. 547–550.

Kikuchi, H.

T. Miyashita, Y. Miyazawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Aoki, and A. Mawatari, “A multicolor wide-viewing angle STN LCD with multiple retarding films,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 743 (1991).

Kim, S. S.

S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

J.-J. Lyu, J. Sohn, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Recent trends on patterned vertical alignment (PVA) and fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid-crystal displays for liquid-crystal television applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid-crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing free, vertically aligned nematic liquid-crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2851 (1997).
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Kim, J. C.

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, K.-H.

K.-H. Kim and J.-K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid-crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1, No. 1, 29 (2009).
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S. B. Park, J. Lyu, Y. Um, H. Do, S. Ahn, K. Choi, K.-H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “A novel charge-shared S-PVA technology,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, K.-H. Kim, J.-J. Jyu, J. H. Souk, J. R. Kelly, and P. J. Bos, “Optimum film compensation modes for TN and VA LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, S.-B. Park, J.-U. Shim, J.-H. Souk, and J. Chen, “New LCD modes for wide-viewing-angle applications,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1085 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-E.

Kim, Y. S.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in vertical alignment liquid-crystal display by optimizing pixel structure and controlling LC orientation,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

Y. Saitoh, S. Kimura, K. Kusafuka, and H. Shimizu, “Optically compensated in-plane-switching mode TFT-LCD panel,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P.

P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematische Flüssigkristalle für Aktiv-Matrix-Displays: design und synthese,” Angew. Chem. 112, 4384 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, and K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854 (1998).
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S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa, and K. Kondo, “Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid-crystal display with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

T. Sigiyama, Y. Toko, T. Hashimoto, K. Katoh, Y. Iimura, and S. Kobayashi, “Analytical simulation of electro-optical performance of amorphous and super-multidomain TN LCD,” SID Symp. Digest 25, 919 (1994).

Kobori, Y.

T. Toyooka, E. Yoda, T. Yamanashi, and Y. Kobori, “Viewing-angle performance of TN LCD with hybrid aligned nematic film,” Displays 20, No. 5, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, T. Kurita, E. Yoda, T. Kaminade, T. Toyooka, and Y. Kobori, “Novel viewing angle compensation films for TN LCDs using a hybrid aligned rod-like LC polymer,” in The Fifth International Display Workshop, 1998, p. 255.

Koden, M.

M. Koden, “Wide viewing-angle technologies of TFT LCDs,” Sharp Tech. J. 1, No. 2, 1 (1999).

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Application of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2005).

Koike, Y.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 1077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, and K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Aratani, H. Klausmann, M. Oh-e, M. Ohta, K. Ashizawa, K. Yanagawa, and K. Kondo, “Complete suppression of color shift in in-plane switching mode liquid-crystal display with a multidomain structure obtained by unidirectional rubbing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, S.

S. Kondo, T. Yamamoto, A. Murayama, H. Hatch, and S. Matsumoto, “A fast-response black and white STN-LCD with retarding film,” SID Symp. Digest 22, 747 (1991).

Kozaki, S.

N. Yamada, S. Kozaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell mode,” SID Symp. Digest 26, 575 (1995).

Kumar, S.

G. G. Nair, D. S. S. Rao, S. K. Prasad, S. Chandrasekhar, and S. Kumar, “Electrooptic and viewing angle characteristics of a display device employing a discotic nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 397, 245 (2003).
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Kurahashi, N.

Y. Nakayoshi, N. Kurahashi, J. Tanno, E. Nishimura, K. Ogawa, and M. Suzuki, “High-transmittance pixel design of in-plane switching TFT LCDs for TVs,” SID Symp. Digest 34, 1100 (2003).
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Kurita, T.

K. Inoue, T. Kurita, E. Yoda, T. Kaminade, T. Toyooka, and Y. Kobori, “Novel viewing angle compensation films for TN LCDs using a hybrid aligned rod-like LC polymer,” in The Fifth International Display Workshop, 1998, p. 255.

Kusafuka, K.

Y. Saitoh, S. Kimura, K. Kusafuka, and H. Shimizu, “Optically compensated in-plane-switching mode TFT-LCD panel,” SID Symp. Digest 29, 706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing free, vertically aligned nematic liquid-crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-Y.

Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in vertical alignment liquid-crystal display by optimizing pixel structure and controlling LC orientation,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid-crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Lyu, J. Sohn, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Recent trends on patterned vertical alignment (PVA) and fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid-crystal displays for liquid-crystal television applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing-angle switching in vertical alignment liquid-crystal display by optimizing pixel structure and controlling LC orientation,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid-crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing free, vertically aligned nematic liquid-crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid-crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Li, F.

S. Z. D. Cheng, F. Li, E. P. Savitski, and F. W. Harris, “Molecular design of aromatic polyimide films as uniaxial negative birefringent optical compensators in liquid-crystal displays,” Trends Polym. Sci. 5, 51 (1997).

Liao, L.

Y.-P. Huang, W.-K. Huang, C.-H. Tsao, J.-J. Su, H.-L. Hou, C.-Y. Lee, L. Liao, T.-R. Chang, Y.-C. Lin, and P.-L. Chen, “Additional refresh technology (ART) of advanced-MVA (AMVA) mode for high quality LCDs,” SID Symp. Digest 38, 1010 (2007).
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