Abstract

This article describes how the far-field radiation distribution and power varies with the geometrical parameters of immersion lenses made from silicon (n¯=3.4) and chalcogenide glass (n¯=2.4) mated with LEDs (λ=3.4µm) based on indium antimonide (n¯=3.5) and estimates the efficiency of using such devices in miniature optical systems.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. J. W. Chey, P. Sultan, and H. J. Gerritsen, “Resonant photoacoustic detection of methane in nitrogen using a room-temperature infrared light-emitting diode,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3192 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).
  3. N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].
  4. B. A. Matveev, Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics, Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer, 2006), pp. 395–428.
  5. T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).
  9. A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

2010 (1)

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

2007 (1)

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Aleksandrov, S. E.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balashov, O. B.

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Chernyak, E. Ya.

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Chernyakov, A. E.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

Chey, J. W.

Esina, N. P.

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Gavrilov, G. A.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. J.

Il’inskaya, N. D.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

Ilinskaya, N. D.

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kapralov, A. A.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karandashev, S. A.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuusela, T.

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. A.

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Loginov, S. A.

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Lugovskoi, A. I.

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Markov, I. I.

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Matveev, B. A.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

Matveev, B. A.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

B. A. Matveev, Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics, Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer, 2006), pp. 395–428.

Peura, J.

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remenniy, M. A.

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remennyi, M. A.

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

Remennyi, M. A.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

Remennyy, M. A.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogachev, A. A.

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Sotnikova, G. Y.

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stus, N. M.

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stus’, N. M.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Sultan, P.

Talalakin, G. N.

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Vasil’ev, E. V.

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Zakgeim, A. L.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

Zotova, N. V.

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (2)

N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, and N. M. Stus’, “Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 42, 641 (2008). [Semiconductors 42, 625 (2008)].

A. L. Zakge?m, N. V. Zotova, N. D. Il’inskaya, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remenny?, N. M. Stus’, and A. E. Chernyakov, “Room-temperature broadband InAsSb flip-chip photodiodes with ?cutoff=4.5µm,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 43, 412 (2009). [Semiconductors 43, 394 (2009)].

IEE Sensors J. (1)

G. Y. Sotnikova, G. A. Gavrilov, S. E. Aleksandrov, A. A. Kapralov, S. A. Karandashev, B. A. Matveev, and M. A. Remennyy, “Low-voltage CO2-gas sensor based on III–V mid-IR immersion lens diode optopairs: Where we are and how far can we go?” IEE Sensors J. 10, 225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. (1)

A. A. Kuznetsov, O. B. Balashov, E. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Loginov, A. I. Lugovsko?, and E. Ya. Chernyak, “Long-range IR detector of hydrocarbon gases,” Prib. Sis. Uprav. Kont. Diagnos. No. 6, 55 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. A. Remenniy, B. A. Matveev, N. V. Zotova, S. A. Karandashev, N. M. Stus’, and N. D. Ilinskaya, “InAs and InAs(Sb)(P) (3–5-µm) immersion-lens photodiodes for portable optic sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

T. Kuusela, J. Peura, B. A. Matveev, M. A. Remennyy, and N. M. Stus, “Photoacoustic gas detection using a cantilever microphone and III–V mid-IR LEDs,” Vib. Spectrosc. 51, 289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (1)

N. P. Esina, N. V. Zotova, I. I. Markov, B. A. Matveev, A. A. Rogachev, N. M. Stus’, and G. N. Talalakin, “Gas analyzer based on semiconductor elements,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 42, 691 (1985).

Other (1)

B. A. Matveev, Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics, Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer, 2006), pp. 395–428.

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