Abstract

A hybrid amplifier consisting of one stage of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and two stages of Raman amplifiers is constructed. Two Raman fibers are cascaded in series to suppress the intensity noise due to double Rayleigh scattering. Backward pumping is applied at all stages in order to increase the gain of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and to decrease the polarization dependent gain of Raman fiber amplifier. In our previous experiment a 16 channel Wavelength Division Multiplexed system with channel spacing of 5 nm was considered. In this experiment a Density Wavelength Division Multiplexed system having 80 channels and a channel spacing of 0.8 nm was taken in to account. Gain Flattening is achieved for the entire C-band and L-bands. Experimental results showed that the hybrid amplifier has the average Gain of more than 19 dB in the wavelength range between 1530 and 1600 nm, with the Noise Figure of less than 6 decibels. The Gain of the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and Raman was optimized to minimize the ripple value as low as 0.045 decibels with an output power of 15.265 decibel-milli.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.
  3. P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.
  5. S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).
  10. C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  19. A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.
  22. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2010

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

2009

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2002

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, USA, 2002).

Aida, K.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aozasa, S.-I.

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

Bellemare, A.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bilal, S. M.

Cani, S. P. N.

Carena, A.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castellani, C. E. S.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.

Chen, J.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-T.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan(2006), PNC-II.

Cho, K.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curri, V.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, J. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emori, Y.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-P.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan(2006), PNC-II.

Hsiao, Y.-L.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan(2006), PNC-II.

Huang, C.-K.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan(2006), PNC-II.

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. K.

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Juskins, J. B.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kado, S.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

Kalinowski, H. l.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.

Kanamori, T.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Karasek, M.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, S.

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Li, J.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, S.-K.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan(2006), PNC-II.

Martini, M. M. J.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.

Masuda, H.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menif, M.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Namiki, S.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Ohishi, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

Ono, H.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Park, S.-H.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Pedrazzani, R.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pontes, M. J.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.

Ribeiro, M. R. N.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.

Romero, M. A.

Sakamoto, T.

Segatto, M. E. V.

Shenoy, M. R.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

Song, K.-U.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-W.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Stentz, A. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Suzuki, K.-I.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, U.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vengasarkar, A. M.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Wysocki, P. F.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Wysocki, P. F.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Sakamoto, S.-I. Aozasa, M. Yamada, and M. Shimizu, “Hybrid amplifiers consisting of EDFA and TDFA for WDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, No. 6, 2287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

Yan, M.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zafrullah, M.

Zhou, J.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

Bell Labs Tech. J.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparative high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gain-flattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman + EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100 (2010).

J. Opt. Technol.

Opt. Commun.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. l. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN + EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference, IMOC (2009), pp. 117–121.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, USA, 2002).

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan(2006), PNC-II.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarkar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Vol. 1 (1998), pp. 53–54.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications OAA, TuC2 (1998), pp. 103–106.

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