Abstract

This paper discusses how the damping at wavelength 1.55 µm depends on various factors for anisotropic single-mode lightguides with boron germanosilicate elliptical cladding. It is shown that the refractive index of this cladding in the preform has a substantial effect on the optical losses of the lightguides. The thickness of the cladding that isolates the core from the boron-containing glass of the elliptical cladding is optimized. The optical losses to Rayleigh scattering are reduced by doping the core with small additives of moisture. For a lightguide with a glass-fiber diameter of 125 µm in a two-layer polymeric coating, an optical loss level equal to 0.5 dB/km is achieved, with a polarization maintenance of 5×10<sup>-6</sup>m<sup>-1</sup>.

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  1. M. A. Eron’yan, “Method of fabricating fiber lightguides that maintain the polarization of the radiation,” Russian Patent No. 2 155 359 (2000).
  2. V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
  3. Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].
  4. M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).
  5. S. Kawakami and S. Nishida, “Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 879 (1974).
  6. L. G. Cohen, D. Marcuse, and W. L. Mammel, “Radiating leaky-mode losses in single-mode lightguides with depressed-index claddings,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1467 (1982).
  7. A. S. Belanov, E. M. Dianov, and V. I. Krivenkov, “Dispersion characteristics of three-layer elliptical lightguides,” in Transactions of IOFAN, Vol. 5, Fiber Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1987), pp. 3–18.
  8. K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437 (1976).
  9. V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob’ev, and G. A. Ivanov, “Optimizing the parameters of single-mode fiber lightguides with a quartz core and a fluorosilicate cladding,” in Transactions of the Fifty-seventh Scientific Session of the A.S. Popov RNTORÉS, (2002), Vol. 1, pp. 30–35.
  10. S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
  11. K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).
  12. M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 209 (1994).

2000 (1)

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

1994 (2)

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).

M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 209 (1994).

1990 (1)

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

1982 (1)

L. G. Cohen, D. Marcuse, and W. L. Mammel, “Radiating leaky-mode losses in single-mode lightguides with depressed-index claddings,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1467 (1982).

1979 (1)

V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).

1976 (1)

K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437 (1976).

1974 (1)

S. Kawakami and S. Nishida, “Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 879 (1974).

1973 (1)

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

Aksenov, V. A.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob’ev, and G. A. Ivanov, “Optimizing the parameters of single-mode fiber lightguides with a quartz core and a fluorosilicate cladding,” in Transactions of the Fifty-seventh Scientific Session of the A.S. Popov RNTORÉS, (2002), Vol. 1, pp. 30–35.

Arutyunyan, Z. É

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Belanov, A. S.

A. S. Belanov, E. M. Dianov, and V. I. Krivenkov, “Dispersion characteristics of three-layer elliptical lightguides,” in Transactions of IOFAN, Vol. 5, Fiber Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1987), pp. 3–18.

Belov, A. V.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob’ev, and G. A. Ivanov, “Optimizing the parameters of single-mode fiber lightguides with a quartz core and a fluorosilicate cladding,” in Transactions of the Fifty-seventh Scientific Session of the A.S. Popov RNTORÉS, (2002), Vol. 1, pp. 30–35.

Cohen, L. G.

L. G. Cohen, D. Marcuse, and W. L. Mammel, “Radiating leaky-mode losses in single-mode lightguides with depressed-index claddings,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1467 (1982).

Dianov, E. M.

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Dianov, E. M.

A. S. Belanov, E. M. Dianov, and V. I. Krivenkov, “Dispersion characteristics of three-layer elliptical lightguides,” in Transactions of IOFAN, Vol. 5, Fiber Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1987), pp. 3–18.

Eron’yan, M. A.

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Grudinin, A. B.

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Gur’yanov, A. N.

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Gusovskii, D. D.

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Hosaka, T.

V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).

Ignat’ev, S. V.

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Inada, K.

K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437 (1976).

Ivanov, G. A.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob’ev, and G. A. Ivanov, “Optimizing the parameters of single-mode fiber lightguides with a quartz core and a fluorosilicate cladding,” in Transactions of the Fifty-seventh Scientific Session of the A.S. Popov RNTORÉS, (2002), Vol. 1, pp. 30–35.

Jaeger, R. E.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

Kawakami, S.

S. Kawakami and S. Nishida, “Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 879 (1974).

Khokhlov, A. V.

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Komarov, A. V.

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Kondrat’ev, Yu. N.

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Krivenkov, V. I.

A. S. Belanov, E. M. Dianov, and V. I. Krivenkov, “Dispersion characteristics of three-layer elliptical lightguides,” in Transactions of IOFAN, Vol. 5, Fiber Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1987), pp. 3–18.

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 209 (1994).

Mammel, W. L.

L. G. Cohen, D. Marcuse, and W. L. Mammel, “Radiating leaky-mode losses in single-mode lightguides with depressed-index claddings,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1467 (1982).

Marcuse, D.

L. G. Cohen, D. Marcuse, and W. L. Mammel, “Radiating leaky-mode losses in single-mode lightguides with depressed-index claddings,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1467 (1982).

Miya, V.

V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).

Miyashita, T.

V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).

Nishida, S.

S. Kawakami and S. Nishida, “Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 879 (1974).

Ohashi, M.

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).

Pinnow, D. A.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

Rich, T. C.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

Romashova, E. I.

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Serkov, M. M.

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Shiraki, K.

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).

Smirnov, O. B.

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Tateda, M.

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).

Terunuma, Y.

V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).

Tsujikawa, K.

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).

Van Uitert, L. G.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

Vorob’ev, I. L.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob’ev, and G. A. Ivanov, “Optimizing the parameters of single-mode fiber lightguides with a quartz core and a fluorosilicate cladding,” in Transactions of the Fifty-seventh Scientific Session of the A.S. Popov RNTORÉS, (2002), Vol. 1, pp. 30–35.

Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (2)

V. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultra low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55µm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).

K. Tsujikawa, M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and M. Tateda, “Scattering property of F and GeO2-codoped silica glasses,” Electron. Lett. 30, 351 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kawakami and S. Nishida, “Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 879 (1974).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive-index behavior and energy-gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations?” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 209 (1994).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. G. Cohen, D. Marcuse, and W. L. Mammel, “Radiating leaky-mode losses in single-mode lightguides with depressed-index claddings,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1467 (1982).

Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

Z. É Arutyunyan, A. B. Grudinin, A. N. Gur’yanov, D. D. Gusovskiĭ, E. M. Dianov, S. V. Ignat’ev, and O. B. Smirnov, “Anisotropic lightguides with elliptic stress cladding and circular core,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 1363 (1990). [Quantum Electron. 20, 1274 (1990)].

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437 (1976).

Opt. Zh. (1)

M. A. Eron’yan, A. V. Komarov, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, E. I. Romashova, M. M. Serkov, and A. V. Khokhlov, “Thin anisotropic single-mode fiber lightguides with an elliptical stress-inducing cladding,” Opt. Zh. 57, No. 10, 104 (2000).

Other (3)

A. S. Belanov, E. M. Dianov, and V. I. Krivenkov, “Dispersion characteristics of three-layer elliptical lightguides,” in Transactions of IOFAN, Vol. 5, Fiber Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1987), pp. 3–18.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob’ev, and G. A. Ivanov, “Optimizing the parameters of single-mode fiber lightguides with a quartz core and a fluorosilicate cladding,” in Transactions of the Fifty-seventh Scientific Session of the A.S. Popov RNTORÉS, (2002), Vol. 1, pp. 30–35.

M. A. Eron’yan, “Method of fabricating fiber lightguides that maintain the polarization of the radiation,” Russian Patent No. 2 155 359 (2000).

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