Abstract

This paper discusses features of radiation absorption in the spectral region from 3 to 5 µm by single-crystal silicon: the dependence of the absorption coefficient on resistivity in samples of n- and p-type conductivity, the additional absorption associated with intraband electron transitions in the conduction band, and the influence of short-wavelength illumination on the transmission spectra. Recommendations for the use of silicon as an optical medium are given from an analysis of the calculated and experimental data.

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  1. http://www.tydex.ru.
  2. P. I. Baranskiĭ, V. P. Klochkov, and I. V. Potykevich, Semiconductor Electronics. A Handbook (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975).
  3. R. A. Smith, Semiconductors (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1978; Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1962).
  4. M. Tannenbaum, Growing Semiconductor Crystals. Semiconductors (Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1962).
  5. V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Kaiser, “Electrical and optical properties of heat-treated silicon,” Phys. Rev. 105, 1751 (1957). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1959].
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Bube, Photoconductivity of Solids (Wiley, New York, 1960; Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1962).
  8. W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. S. Moss, G. J. Burrell, and B. Ellis, Semiconductor Opto-electronics (Halsted Press Division, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1976).
  10. K. J. Marsh and J. A. Savage, “Infrared optical materials for 8–13μ—current developments and future prospects,” Infrared Phys. 14, No. 2, 85 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. M. Nesmelova, N. I. Astaf’ev, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Resistivity dependence of the absorption coefficient of crystalline germanium in the IR region,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 1, 88 (2007). [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 71 (2007)].
  12. K. B. Wolfstirn, “Hole and electron mobilities in doped silicon from radiochemical and conductivity measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 16, 279 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Sze and J. C. Irvin, “Resistivity, mobility and impurity levels in GaAs, Ge and Si at 300 K,” Solid-State Electron. 11, 599 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. S. Vavilov, The Action of Radiations on Semiconductors (Izd. Fiziko-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1963).
  15. É. N. Lotkova, “Study of the IR absorption spectrum of neutron-irradiated silicon. Electrical and optical properties of semiconductors,” Trudy Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk 37, 103 (1966).
  16. H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red optical properties of silicon and germanium,” in Semiconducting Materials, ed., H. K. Henisch(Butterworth, 1951; Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1954).
  17. N. F. Kovtonyuk and Yu. A. Kotsevoĭ, Measuring the Parameters of Semiconductor Materials (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1970).
  18. N. I. Astaf’ev, I. M. Nesmelova, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Features of semiconductor materials as infrared optical media,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 9, 90 (2008). [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 608 (2008)].
  19. J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, “Trapping of minority carriers in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 97, 311 (1955). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1957].
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. I. Astaf’ev, I. M. Nesmelova, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Features of semiconductor materials as infrared optical media,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 9, 90 (2008). [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 608 (2008)].

2007 (1)

I. M. Nesmelova, N. I. Astaf’ev, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Resistivity dependence of the absorption coefficient of crystalline germanium in the IR region,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 1, 88 (2007). [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 71 (2007)].

1974 (1)

K. J. Marsh and J. A. Savage, “Infrared optical materials for 8–13μ—current developments and future prospects,” Infrared Phys. 14, No. 2, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. M. Sze and J. C. Irvin, “Resistivity, mobility and impurity levels in GaAs, Ge and Si at 300 K,” Solid-State Electron. 11, 599 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

É. N. Lotkova, “Study of the IR absorption spectrum of neutron-irradiated silicon. Electrical and optical properties of semiconductors,” Trudy Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk 37, 103 (1966).

1960 (1)

K. B. Wolfstirn, “Hole and electron mobilities in doped silicon from radiochemical and conductivity measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 16, 279 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

W. Kaiser, “Electrical and optical properties of heat-treated silicon,” Phys. Rev. 105, 1751 (1957). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1959].
[CrossRef]

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, “Trapping of minority carriers in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 97, 311 (1955). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1957].
[CrossRef]

Astaf’ev, N. I.

N. I. Astaf’ev, I. M. Nesmelova, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Features of semiconductor materials as infrared optical media,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 9, 90 (2008). [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 608 (2008)].

I. M. Nesmelova, N. I. Astaf’ev, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Resistivity dependence of the absorption coefficient of crystalline germanium in the IR region,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 1, 88 (2007). [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 71 (2007)].

Baranskii, P. I.

P. I. Baranskiĭ, V. P. Klochkov, and I. V. Potykevich, Semiconductor Electronics. A Handbook (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975).

Becker, M.

H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red optical properties of silicon and germanium,” in Semiconducting Materials, ed., H. K. Henisch(Butterworth, 1951; Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1954).

Bube, R. H.

R. H. Bube, Photoconductivity of Solids (Wiley, New York, 1960; Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1962).

Burrell, G. J.

T. S. Moss, G. J. Burrell, and B. Ellis, Semiconductor Opto-electronics (Halsted Press Division, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

Churbanov, M. F.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Ellis, B.

T. S. Moss, G. J. Burrell, and B. Ellis, Semiconductor Opto-electronics (Halsted Press Division, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

Fan, H. Y.

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red optical properties of silicon and germanium,” in Semiconducting Materials, ed., H. K. Henisch(Butterworth, 1951; Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1954).

Gava, V. A.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Gusev, A. V.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Haynes, J. R.

J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, “Trapping of minority carriers in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 97, 311 (1955). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1957].
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, J. A.

J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, “Trapping of minority carriers in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 97, 311 (1955). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1957].
[CrossRef]

Irvin, J. C.

S. M. Sze and J. C. Irvin, “Resistivity, mobility and impurity levels in GaAs, Ge and Si at 300 K,” Solid-State Electron. 11, 599 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

W. Kaiser, “Electrical and optical properties of heat-treated silicon,” Phys. Rev. 105, 1751 (1957). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1959].
[CrossRef]

Klochkov, V. P.

P. I. Baranskiĭ, V. P. Klochkov, and I. V. Potykevich, Semiconductor Electronics. A Handbook (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975).

Koltashov, V. V.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Kotsevoi, Yu. A.

N. F. Kovtonyuk and Yu. A. Kotsevoĭ, Measuring the Parameters of Semiconductor Materials (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1970).

Kovtonyuk, N. F.

N. F. Kovtonyuk and Yu. A. Kotsevoĭ, Measuring the Parameters of Semiconductor Materials (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1970).

Kryukova, E. B.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Lotkova, É. N.

É. N. Lotkova, “Study of the IR absorption spectrum of neutron-irradiated silicon. Electrical and optical properties of semiconductors,” Trudy Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk 37, 103 (1966).

Marsh, K. J.

K. J. Marsh and J. A. Savage, “Infrared optical materials for 8–13μ—current developments and future prospects,” Infrared Phys. 14, No. 2, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Moss, T. S.

T. S. Moss, G. J. Burrell, and B. Ellis, Semiconductor Opto-electronics (Halsted Press Division, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

Nazar’yants, V. O.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Nesmelov, E. A.

N. I. Astaf’ev, I. M. Nesmelova, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Features of semiconductor materials as infrared optical media,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 9, 90 (2008). [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 608 (2008)].

I. M. Nesmelova, N. I. Astaf’ev, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Resistivity dependence of the absorption coefficient of crystalline germanium in the IR region,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 1, 88 (2007). [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 71 (2007)].

Nesmelova, I. M.

N. I. Astaf’ev, I. M. Nesmelova, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Features of semiconductor materials as infrared optical media,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 9, 90 (2008). [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 608 (2008)].

I. M. Nesmelova, N. I. Astaf’ev, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Resistivity dependence of the absorption coefficient of crystalline germanium in the IR region,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 1, 88 (2007). [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 71 (2007)].

Plotnichenko, V. G.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Potykevich, I. V.

P. I. Baranskiĭ, V. P. Klochkov, and I. V. Potykevich, Semiconductor Electronics. A Handbook (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975).

Savage, J. A.

K. J. Marsh and J. A. Savage, “Infrared optical materials for 8–13μ—current developments and future prospects,” Infrared Phys. 14, No. 2, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. A.

R. A. Smith, Semiconductors (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1978; Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1962).

Sokolov, V. O.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, W.

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze and J. C. Irvin, “Resistivity, mobility and impurity levels in GaAs, Ge and Si at 300 K,” Solid-State Electron. 11, 599 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tannenbaum, M.

M. Tannenbaum, Growing Semiconductor Crystals. Semiconductors (Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1962).

Vavilov, V. S.

V. S. Vavilov, The Action of Radiations on Semiconductors (Izd. Fiziko-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1963).

Wolfstirn, K. B.

K. B. Wolfstirn, “Hole and electron mobilities in doped silicon from radiochemical and conductivity measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 16, 279 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

K. J. Marsh and J. A. Savage, “Infrared optical materials for 8–13μ—current developments and future prospects,” Infrared Phys. 14, No. 2, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Sol. (1)

K. B. Wolfstirn, “Hole and electron mobilities in doped silicon from radiochemical and conductivity measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 16, 279 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazar’yants, E. B. Kryukova, V. V. Koltashov, V. O. Sokolov, A. V. Gusev, V. A. Gava, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “The refractive index of single crystals of monoisotopic 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si in the near- and mid-IR regions,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 40, 753 (2010). [Quantum Electron. 40, 753 (2010)].
[CrossRef]

Opt. Zh. (2)

I. M. Nesmelova, N. I. Astaf’ev, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Resistivity dependence of the absorption coefficient of crystalline germanium in the IR region,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 1, 88 (2007). [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 71 (2007)].

N. I. Astaf’ev, I. M. Nesmelova, and E. A. Nesmelov, “Features of semiconductor materials as infrared optical media,” Opt. Zh. 75, No. 9, 90 (2008). [J. Opt. Technol. 75, 608 (2008)].

Phys. Rev. (3)

J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, “Trapping of minority carriers in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 97, 311 (1955). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1957].
[CrossRef]

W. Kaiser, “Electrical and optical properties of heat-treated silicon,” Phys. Rev. 105, 1751 (1957). [Russian trans. Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1959].
[CrossRef]

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

S. M. Sze and J. C. Irvin, “Resistivity, mobility and impurity levels in GaAs, Ge and Si at 300 K,” Solid-State Electron. 11, 599 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Trudy Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk (1)

É. N. Lotkova, “Study of the IR absorption spectrum of neutron-irradiated silicon. Electrical and optical properties of semiconductors,” Trudy Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk 37, 103 (1966).

Other (9)

H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red optical properties of silicon and germanium,” in Semiconducting Materials, ed., H. K. Henisch(Butterworth, 1951; Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1954).

N. F. Kovtonyuk and Yu. A. Kotsevoĭ, Measuring the Parameters of Semiconductor Materials (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1970).

V. S. Vavilov, The Action of Radiations on Semiconductors (Izd. Fiziko-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1963).

T. S. Moss, G. J. Burrell, and B. Ellis, Semiconductor Opto-electronics (Halsted Press Division, New York, 1973; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

R. H. Bube, Photoconductivity of Solids (Wiley, New York, 1960; Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1962).

http://www.tydex.ru.

P. I. Baranskiĭ, V. P. Klochkov, and I. V. Potykevich, Semiconductor Electronics. A Handbook (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975).

R. A. Smith, Semiconductors (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1978; Inostr. Lit., Moscow, 1962).

M. Tannenbaum, Growing Semiconductor Crystals. Semiconductors (Inostr. Lit, Moscow, 1962).

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