Abstract

A hybrid amplifier consisting of one stage of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and two stages of RAMAN amplifiers is constructed. Two RAMAN fibers are cascaded in series to suppress the intensity noise due to double Rayleigh scattering. Backward pumping is applied at all stages in order to increase the gain of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and to decrease the polarization dependent gain of Raman fiber amplifier. Gain Flattening is achieved for the entire C-band and L-band. The simulation results showed that the hybrid amplifier has the average Gain of more than 24 decibels in the wavelength range between 1530 and 1605 nanometers, with the Noise Figure of less than 6 decibels. The Gain of the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and RAMAN was optimized to minimize the ripple value as low as 0.7 decibels with an output power of 14.076 decibel-milli.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and Gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647–649 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.
  3. P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.
  5. S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).
  10. C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121–14131 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.
  12. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548–559 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, USA, 2002).
  16. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1995).
  18. A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170–1172 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563–1566 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.
  21. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107–122 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

2009 (2)

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121–14131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563–1566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170–1172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150–155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and Gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, USA, 2002).

Aida, K.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aozasa, S.-I.

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

Bellemare, A.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150–155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cani, S. P. N.

Carena, A.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170–1172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castellani, C. E. S.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121–14131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.

Chen, J.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-T.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.

Cho, K.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curri, V.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170–1172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, J. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emori, Y.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-P.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.

Hsiao, Y.-L.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.

Huang, C.-K.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Juskins, J. B.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kado, S.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

Kalinowski, H. L.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.

Kanamori, T.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Karasek, M.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150–155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, S.

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and Gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Li, J.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, S.-K.

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.

Martini, M. M. J.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.

Masuda, H.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and Gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menif, M.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150–155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Namiki, S.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Ohishi, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

Ono, H.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Park, S.-H.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Pedrazzani, R.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170–1172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pontes, M. J.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

C. E. S. Castellani, S. P. N. Cani, M. E. V. Segatto, M. J. Pontes, and M. A. Romero, “Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete RAMAN amplifiers: case study employing photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17, No. 16, 14121–14131 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.

Ribeiro, M. R. N.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.

Romero, M. A.

Sakamoto, T.

Segatto, M. E. V.

Shenoy, M. R.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563–1566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

Song, K.-U.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-W.

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Stentz, A. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Suzuki, K.-I.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563–1566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, U.

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563–1566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vengasarkar, A. M.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarhar, A. M.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Wysocki, P. F.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Wysocki, P. F.

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Sakamoto, S.-I. Aozasa, M. Yamada, and M. Shimizu, “Hybrid amplifiers consisting of EDFA and TDFA for WDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, No. 6, 2287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Yan, M.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, No. 1, 187–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Hwang, K.-W. Song, K.-U. Song, S.-H. Park, J. Nilsson, and K. Cho, “Comparitive high power conversion efficiency of C-plus L-band EDFA,” Electron. Lett. 37, No. 25, 1539–1541 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Ultrawide, 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplifier utilizing gainflattened erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and discrete Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 34, No. 9, 897–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and A. Bellemare, “Design of wideband hybrid amplifiers for local area networks,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 148, No. 3, 150–155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K.-I. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 7, 886–888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, J. B. Juskins, R. P. Espindola, M. Andrejco, and A. M. Vengasarkar, “Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, No. 10, 1343–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, No. 1, 159–161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, “Automatic design scheme for optical fiber Raman amplifiers backward pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 9, 948–950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, “Wide band and Gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and multiwavelength pumped RAMAN amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 6, 647–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Carena, V. Curri, and P. Poggiolini, “On the optimization of hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, No. 11, 1170–1172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. (1)

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. J. Kalinowski, “Gain profile optimization for Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers with recycled pumps for WDM systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 9, No. 2, 100–112 (2010).

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, No. 3, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

U. Tiwari, K. Thyagarajan, and M. R. Shenoy, “Simulation and experimental characterization of Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier with enhanced performance,” Opt. Commun. 82, No. 8, 1563–1566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. Emori, S. Kado, and S. Namiki, “Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength multiplexed high power laser diodes,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, No. 2, 107–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Low noise and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” in Tech. Dig. Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), 1998, TuC2, pp. 103–106.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, A. Abramov, T. A. Strasser, P. F. Wysocki, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, C. Wolf, J. L. Zyskind, A. M. Vengsarhar, and J. Zhou, “A gain-flattened ultra wide band EDFA for high capacity WDM optical communications systems,” in Tech. Dig. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1), 1998, pp. 53–54.

M. M. J. Martini, C. E. S. Castellani, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and H. L. Kalinowski, “Multipump optimization for RAMAN+EDFA hybrid amplifiers under pump residual recycling,” in SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2009, pp. 117–121.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, USA, 2002).

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, 1999), p. 47.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

S.-K. Liaw, K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Huang, W.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsiao, “Investigate C+L band EDFA/Raman amplifiers by using the same pump lasers,” in 6th International Joint Conference on Information and Computing (JCIS2006), Kaohsoung, Taiwan, PNC-II.

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