Abstract

This paper discusses ways to implement terahertz-range spectrometers based on the effects of freely damped polarization and rapid traverse of the frequency range. It presents the results of using developed spectrometers to record the presence of ammonia, acetone, and nitric oxide in exhaled air, as well as to analyze a liquid (Custodiol) for flushing transplanted parenchymatous organs.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. V. Stepanov, “Methods of high-sensitivity gas analysis of biomarker molecules in studies of exhaled air,” Trudy Inst. Obshch. Fiz. 61, 5 (2005).
  2. V. A. Skrupskiĭ, “Endogenous volatile compounds—biological markers in human physiology and pathology—and methods of determining them,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Otchet. Inst. Okeanol. (1994).
  3. M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, No. 1, 74 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Higenbottam, “Lung disease and pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide,” Exp. Physiol. 80, 855 (1995).
  5. K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, “Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics,” Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).
  6. D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. I. Dedov and M. V. Shestakova, Diabetes Mellitus (Universum Pub., Moscow, 2003).
  8. I. I. Dedov, M. I. Balabolkin, and E. M. Klebanova, Diabetes Mellitus: Pathogenesis, Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment: A Manual for Physicians (Moscow, 2003).
  9. C. R. Kahn, Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005).
  10. V. G. Berezkin, Gas–Liquid–Solid-Phase Chromatography (Khimiya, Moscow, 1986).
  11. S. Kage, K. Kudo, and N. Ikeda, “Determination of nitrate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. 742, 363 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. A. Mamyrin, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (concepts, achievements, and prospects),” Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 206, 251 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. A. Carrick, D. B. Cooper, and B. Muir, “Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 925, 241 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 381 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W.-B. Yan, “Trace gas analysis by diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 4648, 156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Feng, M. Raynor, and Yu. Chen, “Spectroscopy exposes trace-water contamination in process gases,” Technology Equipment Update. Compound Semiconductor, October2007, pp. 31–33.
  20. V. L. Vaks, A. B. Brailovsky, and V. V. Khodos, “Millimeter range spectrometer with phase switching—Novel method for reaching of the top sensitivity,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 883 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. L. Vaks, V. V. Khodos, and E. V. Spivak, “A nonstationary microwave spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3447 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. V. Khodos, D. A. Ryndyk, and V. L. Vaks, “Fast-passage microwave molecular spectroscopy with frequency sweeping,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 203 (2004).
  23. V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).
  24. V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).
  25. V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).
  26. V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, D. G. Paveliev, and U. I. Koshurinov, “Generation of high stable wide-range THz radiation for precise frequency measurements,” in Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Pasadena, California, USA, 2008, M4B3, p. 1560.
  27. V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).
  28. M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. V. Stepanov, “Methods of high-sensitivity gas analysis of biomarker molecules in studies of exhaled air,” Trudy Inst. Obshch. Fiz. 61, 5 (2005).

V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).

2004 (1)

V. V. Khodos, D. A. Ryndyk, and V. L. Vaks, “Fast-passage microwave molecular spectroscopy with frequency sweeping,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 203 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

W.-B. Yan, “Trace gas analysis by diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 4648, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. A. Mamyrin, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (concepts, achievements, and prospects),” Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 206, 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Carrick, D. B. Cooper, and B. Muir, “Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 925, 241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Kage, K. Kudo, and N. Ikeda, “Determination of nitrate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. 742, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. L. Vaks, A. B. Brailovsky, and V. V. Khodos, “Millimeter range spectrometer with phase switching—Novel method for reaching of the top sensitivity,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Vaks, V. V. Khodos, and E. V. Spivak, “A nonstationary microwave spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. Higenbottam, “Lung disease and pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide,” Exp. Physiol. 80, 855 (1995).

M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. A. Skrupskiĭ, “Endogenous volatile compounds—biological markers in human physiology and pathology—and methods of determining them,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Otchet. Inst. Okeanol. (1994).

1993 (1)

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, “Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics,” Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).

1992 (1)

M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, No. 1, 74 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alving, K.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, “Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics,” Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).

Balabolkin, M. I.

I. I. Dedov, M. I. Balabolkin, and E. M. Klebanova, Diabetes Mellitus: Pathogenesis, Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment: A Manual for Physicians (Moscow, 2003).

Basov, S. A.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

Berezkin, V. G.

V. G. Berezkin, Gas–Liquid–Solid-Phase Chromatography (Khimiya, Moscow, 1986).

Brailovsky, A. B.

V. L. Vaks, A. B. Brailovsky, and V. V. Khodos, “Millimeter range spectrometer with phase switching—Novel method for reaching of the top sensitivity,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carrick, W. A.

W. A. Carrick, D. B. Cooper, and B. Muir, “Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 925, 241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Yu.

J. Feng, M. Raynor, and Yu. Chen, “Spectroscopy exposes trace-water contamination in process gases,” Technology Equipment Update. Compound Semiconductor, October2007, pp. 31–33.

Chernyaeva, M. B.

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

Chernyaeva, M. B.

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

Cooper, D. B.

W. A. Carrick, D. B. Cooper, and B. Muir, “Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 925, 241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De With, G.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dedov, I. I.

I. I. Dedov, M. I. Balabolkin, and E. M. Klebanova, Diabetes Mellitus: Pathogenesis, Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment: A Manual for Physicians (Moscow, 2003).

I. I. Dedov and M. V. Shestakova, Diabetes Mellitus (Universum Pub., Moscow, 2003).

Domracheva, E. G.

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

Dorozhkin, P. S.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, M. Raynor, and Yu. Chen, “Spectroscopy exposes trace-water contamination in process gases,” Technology Equipment Update. Compound Semiconductor, October2007, pp. 31–33.

Guo, L.

J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higenbottam, T.

T. Higenbottam, “Lung disease and pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide,” Exp. Physiol. 80, 855 (1995).

Hodson, D. I.

M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, G. G.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

S. Kage, K. Kudo, and N. Ikeda, “Determination of nitrate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. 742, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Illyuk, A. V.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

Jongste, J. C. D.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kage, S.

S. Kage, K. Kudo, and N. Ikeda, “Determination of nitrate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. 742, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, C. R.

C. R. Kahn, Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005).

Kharintsev, S. S.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khodos, V. V.

V. V. Khodos, D. A. Ryndyk, and V. L. Vaks, “Fast-passage microwave molecular spectroscopy with frequency sweeping,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 203 (2004).

V. L. Vaks, A. B. Brailovsky, and V. V. Khodos, “Millimeter range spectrometer with phase switching—Novel method for reaching of the top sensitivity,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Vaks, V. V. Khodos, and E. V. Spivak, “A nonstationary microwave spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klebanova, E. M.

I. I. Dedov, M. I. Balabolkin, and E. M. Klebanova, Diabetes Mellitus: Pathogenesis, Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment: A Manual for Physicians (Moscow, 2003).

Koshurinov, U. I.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, D. G. Paveliev, and U. I. Koshurinov, “Generation of high stable wide-range THz radiation for precise frequency measurements,” in Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Pasadena, California, USA, 2008, M4B3, p. 1560.

Koshurinov, Yu. I.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).

Kudo, K.

S. Kage, K. Kudo, and N. Ikeda, “Determination of nitrate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. 742, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larstad, M.

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ljungkvist, G.

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loh, C.

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loos, J.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lundberg, J. M.

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, “Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics,” Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).

Mamyrin, B. A.

B. A. Mamyrin, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (concepts, achievements, and prospects),” Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 206, 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muir, B.

W. A. Carrick, D. B. Cooper, and B. Muir, “Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 925, 241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforov, S. D.

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

Olin, A. C.

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panin, A. N.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, D. G. Paveliev, and U. I. Koshurinov, “Generation of high stable wide-range THz radiation for precise frequency measurements,” in Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Pasadena, California, USA, 2008, M4B3, p. 1560.

Patel, C. K. N.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pavel’ev, D. G.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

Pavel’ev, D. G.

V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).

Paveliev, D. G.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, D. G. Paveliev, and U. I. Koshurinov, “Generation of high stable wide-range THz radiation for precise frequency measurements,” in Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Pasadena, California, USA, 2008, M4B3, p. 1560.

Phillips, M.

M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, No. 1, 74 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pijnenburg, M. W.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pripolzin, S. I.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

Pushkarsky, M. B.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raynor, M.

J. Feng, M. Raynor, and Yu. Chen, “Spectroscopy exposes trace-water contamination in process gases,” Technology Equipment Update. Compound Semiconductor, October2007, pp. 31–33.

Ryndyk, D. A.

V. V. Khodos, D. A. Ryndyk, and V. L. Vaks, “Fast-passage microwave molecular spectroscopy with frequency sweeping,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 203 (2004).

Sagar, M. S.

M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salakhov, M. Kh.

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shestakova, M. V.

I. I. Dedov and M. V. Shestakova, Diabetes Mellitus (Universum Pub., Moscow, 2003).

Singh, G.

M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skrupskii, V. A.

V. A. Skrupskiĭ, “Endogenous volatile compounds—biological markers in human physiology and pathology—and methods of determining them,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Otchet. Inst. Okeanol. (1994).

Smith, A. D.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sobakinskaya, E. A.

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

Spivak, E. V.

V. L. Vaks, V. V. Khodos, and E. V. Spivak, “A nonstationary microwave spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, E. V.

E. V. Stepanov, “Methods of high-sensitivity gas analysis of biomarker molecules in studies of exhaled air,” Trudy Inst. Obshch. Fiz. 61, 5 (2005).

Tang, Zh.

J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. R.

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
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Toren, K.

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaks, V. L.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).

V. V. Khodos, D. A. Ryndyk, and V. L. Vaks, “Fast-passage microwave molecular spectroscopy with frequency sweeping,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 203 (2004).

V. L. Vaks, V. V. Khodos, and E. V. Spivak, “A nonstationary microwave spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Vaks, A. B. Brailovsky, and V. V. Khodos, “Millimeter range spectrometer with phase switching—Novel method for reaching of the top sensitivity,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, D. G. Paveliev, and U. I. Koshurinov, “Generation of high stable wide-range THz radiation for precise frequency measurements,” in Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Pasadena, California, USA, 2008, M4B3, p. 1560.

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M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 381 (2003).
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K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, “Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics,” Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).

Whitton, A. C.

M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.-B.

W.-B. Yan, “Trace gas analysis by diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 4648, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

M. Larstad, C. Loh, G. Ljungkvist, A. C. Olin, and K. Toren, “Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air using a multi-bed adsorbent and end-cut gas–solid chromatography,” Analyst 127, 1440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, “Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. (1)

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “Method of microwave nonsteady-state gas spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Biomed. Tekhnol. Radioélek. 5, 9 (2008).

Cancer Treat. Rev. (1)

M. S. Sagar, G. Singh, D. I. Hodson, and A. C. Whitton, “Nitric oxide and anti-cancer therapy,” Cancer Treat. Rev. 21, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Respir. J. (1)

K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, “Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics,” Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368 (1993).

Exp. Physiol. (1)

T. Higenbottam, “Lung disease and pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide,” Exp. Physiol. 80, 855 (1995).

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

V. L. Vaks, A. B. Brailovsky, and V. V. Khodos, “Millimeter range spectrometer with phase switching—Novel method for reaching of the top sensitivity,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. (1)

B. A. Mamyrin, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (concepts, achievements, and prospects),” Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 206, 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. (3)

V. L. Vaks, E. G. Domracheva, S. D. Nikiforov, E. A. Sobakinskaya, and M. B. Chernyaeva, “The use of microwave nonsteady-state spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnosis,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 51, 490 (2008).

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, S. A. Basov, A. V. Illyuk, S. I. Pripolzin, D. G. Pavel’ev, and Yu. I. Koshurinov, “Nonsteady-state spectroscopy of the 1–2.5-THz range on solid-state devices,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 52, 569 (2009).

V. L. Vaks, Yu. I. Koshurinov, D. G. Pavel’ev, and A. N. Panin, “The development and creation of a system for phase synchronization in the subterahertz and terahertz frequency ranges using the harmonic of the signal of the synthesizer of the centimeter range,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Radiofiz. 48, 933 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. V. Khodos, D. A. Ryndyk, and V. L. Vaks, “Fast-passage microwave molecular spectroscopy with frequency sweeping,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 203 (2004).

J. Zheng, Zh. Tang, Y. He, and L. Guo, “Sensitive detection of weak absorption signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy by using derivative spectroscopy and wavelet transform,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr. A (1)

W. A. Carrick, D. B. Cooper, and B. Muir, “Retrospective identification of chemical warfare agents by high-temperature automatic thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr. A 925, 241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. (1)

S. Kage, K. Kudo, and N. Ikeda, “Determination of nitrate in blood by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Appl. 742, 363 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

S. S. Kharintsev, G. G. Hoffmann, J. Loos, G. De With, P. S. Dorozhkin, and M. Kh. Salakhov, “Subwavelength-resolution near-field Raman spectroscopy,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 105, 909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nauch. Tekhnich. Otchet. Inst. Okeanol. (1)

V. A. Skrupskiĭ, “Endogenous volatile compounds—biological markers in human physiology and pathology—and methods of determining them,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Otchet. Inst. Okeanol. (1994).

Proc. SPIE (1)

W.-B. Yan, “Trace gas analysis by diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 4648, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. L. Vaks, V. V. Khodos, and E. V. Spivak, “A nonstationary microwave spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, No. 1, 74 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thorax (1)

D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. D. Jongste, “Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation,” Thorax 61, 817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trudy Inst. Obshch. Fiz. (1)

E. V. Stepanov, “Methods of high-sensitivity gas analysis of biomarker molecules in studies of exhaled air,” Trudy Inst. Obshch. Fiz. 61, 5 (2005).

Other (6)

I. I. Dedov and M. V. Shestakova, Diabetes Mellitus (Universum Pub., Moscow, 2003).

I. I. Dedov, M. I. Balabolkin, and E. M. Klebanova, Diabetes Mellitus: Pathogenesis, Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment: A Manual for Physicians (Moscow, 2003).

C. R. Kahn, Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005).

V. G. Berezkin, Gas–Liquid–Solid-Phase Chromatography (Khimiya, Moscow, 1986).

J. Feng, M. Raynor, and Yu. Chen, “Spectroscopy exposes trace-water contamination in process gases,” Technology Equipment Update. Compound Semiconductor, October2007, pp. 31–33.

V. L. Vaks, A. N. Panin, D. G. Paveliev, and U. I. Koshurinov, “Generation of high stable wide-range THz radiation for precise frequency measurements,” in Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Pasadena, California, USA, 2008, M4B3, p. 1560.

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