Abstract

Transient electroluminescence in an organic LED based on a thin polymeric film has been experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed. The calculated and experimental curves are both characterized by anomalous dispersion and universality, which can be regarded as a manifestation of field-induced charge-carrier diffusion in the nonequilibrium transport regime. It is shown that the charge-carrier time of flight corresponds to the time to reach half the steady-state radiation intensity, rather than the delay time of the electroluminescence relative to the beginning of the applied voltage pulse.

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  1. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. V. Vannikov, “Organic polymeric LEDs,” Ross. Khim. Zh. 45, No. 5–6, 41 (2001).
  4. F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. Tameev, “Charge mobility in polymer systems,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 37, 185 (2007).
  6. S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 75, 15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Pinner, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, “Transient electroluminescence of polymer light-emitting diodes using electrical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5116 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. R. Nikitenko, H. von Seggern, and H. Bässler, “Non-equilibrium transport of charge carriers in disordered organic materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 136210 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. R. Nikitenko and H. von Seggern, “Nonequilibrium transport of charge carriers and transient electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 103708 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).
  14. L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. R. Nikitenko, A. R. Tameev, and A. V. Vannikov, “Initial rise of transient electroluminescence in organic films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 496, 107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

2009 (1)

A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

2008 (1)

V. R. Nikitenko, A. R. Tameev, and A. V. Vannikov, “Initial rise of transient electroluminescence in organic films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 496, 107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

V. R. Nikitenko, H. von Seggern, and H. Bässler, “Non-equilibrium transport of charge carriers in disordered organic materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 136210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Nikitenko and H. von Seggern, “Nonequilibrium transport of charge carriers and transient electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 103708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tameev, “Charge mobility in polymer systems,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 37, 185 (2007).

2004 (3)

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. V. Vannikov, “Organic polymeric LEDs,” Ross. Khim. Zh. 45, No. 5–6, 41 (2001).

1999 (5)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pinner, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, “Transient electroluminescence of polymer light-emitting diodes using electrical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 75, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babel, A.

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bässler, H.

V. R. Nikitenko, H. von Seggern, and H. Bässler, “Non-equilibrium transport of charge carriers in disordered organic materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 136210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 75, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bozano, L.

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breach, J.-C.

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brédas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brock, P. J.

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brock, P. J.

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, S. A.

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheberyako, K. V.

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

Chen, W. D.

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.-E.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dunlap, D. H.

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonov, V.

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferraris, J. P.

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pinner, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, “Transient electroluminescence of polymer light-emitting diodes using electrical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gribkova, O. L.

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagler, T. W.

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heun, S.

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. F.

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

Jenekhe, S. A.

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karg, S.

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kenkre, V. M.

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, A. P.

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lögdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lypenko, D. A.

A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

Malliaras, G. G.

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neef, C. J.

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nekrasov, A. A.

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

Nikitenko, V. R.

A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

V. R. Nikitenko, A. R. Tameev, and A. V. Vannikov, “Initial rise of transient electroluminescence in organic films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 496, 107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Nikitenko and H. von Seggern, “Nonequilibrium transport of charge carriers and transient electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 103708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Nikitenko, H. von Seggern, and H. Bässler, “Non-equilibrium transport of charge carriers in disordered organic materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 136210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S. V.

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paasch, G.

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Parris, P. E.

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinner, D. J.

D. J. Pinner, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, “Transient electroluminescence of polymer light-emitting diodes using electrical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poplavskyy, D.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Posdorfer, J. R.

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rie, W.

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salem, J. R.

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, F.

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tameev, A. R.

A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

V. R. Nikitenko, A. R. Tameev, and A. V. Vannikov, “Initial rise of transient electroluminescence in organic films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 496, 107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tameev, “Charge mobility in polymer systems,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 37, 185 (2007).

Tessler, N.

D. J. Pinner, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, “Transient electroluminescence of polymer light-emitting diodes using electrical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tonzola, C. J.

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tverskoi, V. A.

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

Vannikov, A. V.

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vannikov, A. V.

A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

V. R. Nikitenko, A. R. Tameev, and A. V. Vannikov, “Initial rise of transient electroluminescence in organic films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 496, 107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

A. V. Vannikov, “Organic polymeric LEDs,” Ross. Khim. Zh. 45, No. 5–6, 41 (2001).

von Seggern, H.

V. R. Nikitenko, H. von Seggern, and H. Bässler, “Non-equilibrium transport of charge carriers in disordered organic materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 136210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Nikitenko and H. von Seggern, “Nonequilibrium transport of charge carriers and transient electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 103708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Werner, B.

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wessling, B.

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. H. Campbell, D. L. Smith, C. J. Neef, and J. P. Ferraris, “Consistent time-of-flight mobility measurements and polymer light-emitting diode current–voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Bozano, S. A. Carter, J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, and P. J. Brock, “Temperature- and field-dependent electron and hole mobilities in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Scott, G. G. Malliaras, W. D. Chen, J.-C. Breach, J. R. Salem, and P. J. Brock, “Hole-limited recombination in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. P. Kulkarni, C. J. Tonzola, A. Babel, and S. A. Jenekhe, “Electron transport materials for organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Élektrokhimiya (1)

V. F. Ivanov, O. L. Gribkova, K. V. Cheberyako, A. A. Nekrasov, V. A. Tverskoĭ, and A. V. Vannikov, “Matrix synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly-(2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane)-sulfonic acid,” Élektrokhimiya 40, 339 (2004).

Fiz. Tverd. Tela (1)

A. R. Tameev, V. R. Nikitenko, D. A. Lypenko, and A. V. Vannikov, “Transient electroluminescence and anomalous dispersion of charge carriers in thin polymer films,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 51, 1840 (2009). [Phys. Solid State 51, 1954 (2009)].

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. R. Nikitenko and H. von Seggern, “Nonequilibrium transport of charge carriers and transient electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 103708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. So, B. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, D. Poplavskyy, S. A. Choulis, and V.-E. Choong, “Recent progress in solution-processable organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 091101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pinner, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, “Transient electroluminescence of polymer light-emitting diodes using electrical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

V. R. Nikitenko, H. von Seggern, and H. Bässler, “Non-equilibrium transport of charge carriers in disordered organic materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 136210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

V. R. Nikitenko, A. R. Tameev, and A. V. Vannikov, “Initial rise of transient electroluminescence in organic films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 496, 107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397, No. 6715, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. (1)

A. R. Tameev, “Charge mobility in polymer systems,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 37, 185 (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. V. Novikov, D. H. Dunlap, V. M. Kenkre, P. E. Parris, and A. V. Vannikov, “Essential role of correlations in governing charge transport in disordered organic materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell, T. W. Hagler, D. L. Smith, and J. P. Ferraris, “Direct measurement of conjugated polymer electronic excitation energies using metal/polymer/metal structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1900 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

H. Bässler, “Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 75, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. R. Posdorfer, B. Werner, B. Wessling, S. Heun, and H. Becker, “Influence of conductivity and work function of polyaniline-based HIL on PLED device performance,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ross. Khim. Zh. (1)

A. V. Vannikov, “Organic polymeric LEDs,” Ross. Khim. Zh. 45, No. 5–6, 41 (2001).

Synth. Met. (1)

S. Karg, V. Dyakonov, M. Meier, W. Rie, and G. Paasch, “Transient electroluminescence in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 67, 165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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