Abstract

This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the optical recording and thermal amplification of phase gratings in a new polymeric composite with diffusion amplification, based on PMMA and benzophenone. The phase gratings were recorded by exposing layers to incoherent UV radiation (365 nm) through an amplitude mask and an interference pattern formed by the radiation of a pulsed Nd  :  YAG laser (355 nm). Post-exposure heat treatment of the layers resulted in amplification of the gratings. The kinetics of the process are consistent with concepts of the diffusion nature of the amplification. The photo- and thermostability of the gratings after amplification made it possible to conclude that photoattachment of the benzophenone to the PMMA occurs in the layers, resulting in diffusion relaxation of the inhomogeneous distribution of the benzophenone concentration. Refractive-index modulation of 1.6×10<sup>−3</sup> was achieved for PMMA layers containing benzophenone with a mole fraction of 2%.

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  1. U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic Press, New York, 1971; Mir, Moscow, 1975).
  4. A. I. Raĭchenko, Mathematical Theory of Diffusion in Applications (Naukov Dumka, Kiev, 1981).
  5. F. W. Deeg, J. Pinsl, and Chr. Brauchle, “Hydrogen abstraction of benzophenone from polymer matrices: evaluation of quantum yields and photomechanical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5715 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Veniaminov, V. F. Goncharov, and A. P. Popov, “Hologram amplification by diffusion destruction of out-of-phase periodic structures,” Opt. Spektrosk. 70, 864 (1991). [Opt. Spectrosc. 70, 505 (1991)].
  7. J. Guillet, Polymer Photophysics and Photochemistry (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1985; Mir, Moscow, 1988).
  8. Chr. Brauchle, D. M. Burland, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Hydrogen abstraction by benzophenone studied by holographic photochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. 85, 123 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. S. Zefirov, Chemical Encyclopedia, Vol. 4 (Bol’shaya Rossiĭskaya Entsiklopediya, Moscow, 1995).
  11. B. P. Nikol’skiĭ, Chemical Handbook, Vol. 2 (Izd. Khim, 1971).
  12. A. A. Askadskiĭ and V. I. Kondrashchenko, Computer Material Science of Polymers, Vol. 1 (Nauchn. Mir, Moscow, 1999).
  13. V. V. Mogil’nyĭ and A. M. Lazareva, “How diffusion of the free volume affects the thermoisomerization of azomethine compounds in glassy polymer films,” Vysokomol. Soed. Ser. B 36, 2088 (1994).

2008 (1)

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. V. Mogil’nyĭ and A. M. Lazareva, “How diffusion of the free volume affects the thermoisomerization of azomethine compounds in glassy polymer films,” Vysokomol. Soed. Ser. B 36, 2088 (1994).

1991 (1)

A. V. Veniaminov, V. F. Goncharov, and A. P. Popov, “Hologram amplification by diffusion destruction of out-of-phase periodic structures,” Opt. Spektrosk. 70, 864 (1991). [Opt. Spectrosc. 70, 505 (1991)].

1986 (1)

F. W. Deeg, J. Pinsl, and Chr. Brauchle, “Hydrogen abstraction of benzophenone from polymer matrices: evaluation of quantum yields and photomechanical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5715 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Chr. Brauchle, D. M. Burland, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Hydrogen abstraction by benzophenone studied by holographic photochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. 85, 123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Askadskii, A. A.

A. A. Askadskiĭ and V. I. Kondrashchenko, Computer Material Science of Polymers, Vol. 1 (Nauchn. Mir, Moscow, 1999).

Bjorklund, G. C.

Chr. Brauchle, D. M. Burland, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Hydrogen abstraction by benzophenone studied by holographic photochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. 85, 123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brauchle, Chr.

F. W. Deeg, J. Pinsl, and Chr. Brauchle, “Hydrogen abstraction of benzophenone from polymer matrices: evaluation of quantum yields and photomechanical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5715 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chr. Brauchle, D. M. Burland, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Hydrogen abstraction by benzophenone studied by holographic photochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. 85, 123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic Press, New York, 1971; Mir, Moscow, 1975).

Burland, D. M.

Chr. Brauchle, D. M. Burland, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Hydrogen abstraction by benzophenone studied by holographic photochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. 85, 123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Clube, F.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic Press, New York, 1971; Mir, Moscow, 1975).

Deeg, F. W.

F. W. Deeg, J. Pinsl, and Chr. Brauchle, “Hydrogen abstraction of benzophenone from polymer matrices: evaluation of quantum yields and photomechanical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5715 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, V. F.

A. V. Veniaminov, V. F. Goncharov, and A. P. Popov, “Hologram amplification by diffusion destruction of out-of-phase periodic structures,” Opt. Spektrosk. 70, 864 (1991). [Opt. Spectrosc. 70, 505 (1991)].

Gray, S.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guillet, J.

J. Guillet, Polymer Photophysics and Photochemistry (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1985; Mir, Moscow, 1988).

Kondrashchenko, V. I.

A. A. Askadskiĭ and V. I. Kondrashchenko, Computer Material Science of Polymers, Vol. 1 (Nauchn. Mir, Moscow, 1999).

Kowarschik, R.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazareva, A. M.

V. V. Mogil’nyĭ and A. M. Lazareva, “How diffusion of the free volume affects the thermoisomerization of azomethine compounds in glassy polymer films,” Vysokomol. Soed. Ser. B 36, 2088 (1994).

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic Press, New York, 1971; Mir, Moscow, 1975).

Mahilny, U. V.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marmysh, D. N.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matusevich, V.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mogil’nyi, V. V.

V. V. Mogil’nyĭ and A. M. Lazareva, “How diffusion of the free volume affects the thermoisomerization of azomethine compounds in glassy polymer films,” Vysokomol. Soed. Ser. B 36, 2088 (1994).

Nikol’skii, B. P.

B. P. Nikol’skiĭ, Chemical Handbook, Vol. 2 (Izd. Khim, 1971).

Pinsl, J.

F. W. Deeg, J. Pinsl, and Chr. Brauchle, “Hydrogen abstraction of benzophenone from polymer matrices: evaluation of quantum yields and photomechanical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5715 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A. P.

A. V. Veniaminov, V. F. Goncharov, and A. P. Popov, “Hologram amplification by diffusion destruction of out-of-phase periodic structures,” Opt. Spektrosk. 70, 864 (1991). [Opt. Spectrosc. 70, 505 (1991)].

Raichenko, A. I.

A. I. Raĭchenko, Mathematical Theory of Diffusion in Applications (Naukov Dumka, Kiev, 1981).

Stankevich, A. I.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Struchen, D.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tisserand, J.-C.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, A. L.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veniaminov, A. V.

A. V. Veniaminov, V. F. Goncharov, and A. P. Popov, “Hologram amplification by diffusion destruction of out-of-phase periodic structures,” Opt. Spektrosk. 70, 864 (1991). [Opt. Spectrosc. 70, 505 (1991)].

Zefirov, N. S.

N. S. Zefirov, Chemical Encyclopedia, Vol. 4 (Bol’shaya Rossiĭskaya Entsiklopediya, Moscow, 1995).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 82, 299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

F. W. Deeg, J. Pinsl, and Chr. Brauchle, “Hydrogen abstraction of benzophenone from polymer matrices: evaluation of quantum yields and photomechanical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5715 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chr. Brauchle, D. M. Burland, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Hydrogen abstraction by benzophenone studied by holographic photochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. 85, 123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, and J.-C. Tisserand, “Holographic microlithography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

A. V. Veniaminov, V. F. Goncharov, and A. P. Popov, “Hologram amplification by diffusion destruction of out-of-phase periodic structures,” Opt. Spektrosk. 70, 864 (1991). [Opt. Spectrosc. 70, 505 (1991)].

Vysokomol. Soed. Ser. B (1)

V. V. Mogil’nyĭ and A. M. Lazareva, “How diffusion of the free volume affects the thermoisomerization of azomethine compounds in glassy polymer films,” Vysokomol. Soed. Ser. B 36, 2088 (1994).

Other (6)

J. Guillet, Polymer Photophysics and Photochemistry (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1985; Mir, Moscow, 1988).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic Press, New York, 1971; Mir, Moscow, 1975).

A. I. Raĭchenko, Mathematical Theory of Diffusion in Applications (Naukov Dumka, Kiev, 1981).

N. S. Zefirov, Chemical Encyclopedia, Vol. 4 (Bol’shaya Rossiĭskaya Entsiklopediya, Moscow, 1995).

B. P. Nikol’skiĭ, Chemical Handbook, Vol. 2 (Izd. Khim, 1971).

A. A. Askadskiĭ and V. I. Kondrashchenko, Computer Material Science of Polymers, Vol. 1 (Nauchn. Mir, Moscow, 1999).

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