Abstract

In this paper the mean current impulse response and standard deviation in Geiger mode for heterostructure APD are determined. The model is based on recurrence equations. These equations are solved numerically to calculate the mean current impulse response and standard deviation as a function of time. In this structure we illustrate the multiplication region with different ionization threshold energies that the impact ionization of the injected carrier type is localized and the feedback carrier type is suppressed. In fact for this structure, better control of spatial distribution of impact ionization for both injected and feedback carriers can be achieved. By enhancing the control of impact-ionization position, the structure achieved to high gain and very low noise.

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  1. C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).
  2. C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).
  3. R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).
  4. C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).
  5. O. Kown, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction Al0.6Ga0.4As–GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1287 (2003).
  6. C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).
  7. J. L. Moll and N. Meyer, “Secondary multiplication in silicon,” Solid State Electron. 3, 155 (1961).
  8. M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).
  9. S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).
  10. C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).
  11. M. M. Hayat and B. E. A. Saleh, “Statistical properties of the impulse response function of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes including the effect of dead space,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1415 (1992).
  12. W. Chen and Sh. Liu, “PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105 (1996).
  13. S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

2005

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

2003

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

O. Kown, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction Al0.6Ga0.4As–GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1287 (2003).

C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).

2001

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

2000

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).

1996

W. Chen and Sh. Liu, “PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105 (1996).

1992

M. M. Hayat and B. E. A. Saleh, “Statistical properties of the impulse response function of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes including the effect of dead space,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1415 (1992).

1980

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

1961

J. L. Moll and N. Meyer, “Secondary multiplication in silicon,” Solid State Electron. 3, 155 (1961).

Airey, R. J.

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

Campbell, J. C.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Chen, W.

W. Chen and Sh. Liu, “PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105 (1996).

Chia, C. K.

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

Chin, R.

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

David, J. P. R.

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).

Grey, R.

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).

Groves, C.

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

Hambleton, P. J.

Hayat, M. M.

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).

M. M. Hayat and B. E. A. Saleh, “Statistical properties of the impulse response function of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes including the effect of dead space,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1415 (1992).

Hess, K.

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

Holmes, A. L.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Holonyak, N.

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

Hopkinson, M.

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

Kown, O.

O. Kown, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction Al0.6Ga0.4As–GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1287 (2003).

Li, X.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Liu, Sh.

W. Chen and Sh. Liu, “PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105 (1996).

Meyer, N.

J. L. Moll and N. Meyer, “Secondary multiplication in silicon,” Solid State Electron. 3, 155 (1961).

Moll, J. L.

J. L. Moll and N. Meyer, “Secondary multiplication in silicon,” Solid State Electron. 3, 155 (1961).

Ng, B. K.

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

Plimmer, S. A.

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).

Rees, G. J.

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).

Ress, G. J.

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

Robson, P. N.

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

Saleh, B. E. A.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).

M. M. Hayat and B. E. A. Saleh, “Statistical properties of the impulse response function of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes including the effect of dead space,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1415 (1992).

Saleh, M. A.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).

Sidhu, R.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Stillman, G. E.

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

Sun, X.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Tan, C. H.

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

Tang, J. Y.

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

Teich, M. C.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).

Tozer, R. C.

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

Wang, S.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Zheng, X. G.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

Electron. Lett.

R. Chin, N. Holonyak, G. E. Stillman, J. Y. Tang, and K. Hess, “Impact ionisation in multilayered heterojunction structures,” Electron. Lett. 16, 467 (1980).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. Groves, C. K. Chia, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche noise characteristics of single AlxGa1-xAs(0.3<x<0.6)–GaAs heterojunction APDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 70 (2005).

O. Kown, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction Al0.6Ga0.4As–GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1287 (2003).

W. Chen and Sh. Liu, “PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1346 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices

C. Groves, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, G. J. Ress, and M. M. Hayat, “Exponential time response in analogue and Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 52, 1527 (2005).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Dead-space-based theory correctly predicts excess noise factor for thin GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 625 (2000).

S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, and G. J. Rees, “Avalanche multiplication in AlxGa1-xAs (x=0 to 0.60),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 1089 (2000).

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low multiplication noise thin Al0.6Ga0.4As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 1310 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. K. Chia, B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, and P. N. Robson, “Multiplication and excess noise in AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2631 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. M. Hayat and B. E. A. Saleh, “Statistical properties of the impulse response function of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes including the effect of dead space,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1415 (1992).

C. H. Tan, P. J. Hambleton, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, and G. J. Rees, “Calculation of APD impulse response using a space- and time-dependent ionization probability distribution function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 155 (2003).

Solid State Electron.

J. L. Moll and N. Meyer, “Secondary multiplication in silicon,” Solid State Electron. 3, 155 (1961).

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