Abstract

This article explains the features of a method for segmenting microscopic images of blood specimens, in which the main types of leukocytes are discriminated and counted. The segmentation is based on threshold classification of the image of a blood smear according to brightness, hue, and saturation, using morphological processing of binary masks, calculation of the objects’ parameters such as fill factor, eccentricity, and equivalent diameter, and calculation of the objects’ texture characteristics. The method is stable against the presence of noise on the image, as well as against small changes of the color characteristics of the cells.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Yu. I. Afanas’ev, N. A. Yurina, and E. F. Kotovski?, Histology, Cytology, and Embryology (Meditsina, Moscow, 2002).
  2. A. V. Dyrnaev and A. S. Potapov, “Combined method of counting erythrocytes on the images of blood smears,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Vest. SPbGU ITMO No. 01(77), 19 (2012).
  3. M. N. Miller, “Leukocyte classification by morphological criteria,” in Engineering Foundation Conference on Automatic Cytology, Saxtons River, VT, 1972, pp. 14–18.
  4. P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).
  5. Cheng Ke, “White blood cell detection using a novel fuzzy morphological shared-weight neural network,” in International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology, Vol. 2, 2008, pp. 532–535.
  6. X. B. Song, Y. S. Abu-Mostafa, J. Sill, and H. Kasdan, “Incorporating contextual information in white blood cell identification,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Advances in Neural Information-Processing Systems 10, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, 1998, pp. 950–956.
  7. S. K. Bandyopadhyay and S. Roy, “Detection of sharp contour of the element of the WBC and segmentation of two leading elements like nucleus and cytoplasm,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2, No. 1, 545 (2012).
  8. D. D. Nawgaje, “Implementation of fuzzy inference system for white blood cell cancer detection using DSP TMS320C6711,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Spec. Issue123 (2011).
  9. G. Giemsa, “Eine Vereinfachung und Vervollkommnung meiner Methylenazur-Methylenblau-Eosin-Färbemethode zur Erzielung der Romanowsky-Nochtschen Chromatinfärbung,” Centralbl. für Bakt. 37, 308 (1904).
  10. N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Samet and M. Tamminen, “Efficient component labeling of images of arbitrary dimension represented by linear bintrees,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 579 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Steinhaus, “Sur la division des corps matériels en parties,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. C1, 801 (1956).
  13. S. Lloyd, “Least square quantization in PCMs,” in Bell Telephone Laboratories Paper (1957), pp. 129–137.

2012 (2)

A. V. Dyrnaev and A. S. Potapov, “Combined method of counting erythrocytes on the images of blood smears,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Vest. SPbGU ITMO No. 01(77), 19 (2012).

S. K. Bandyopadhyay and S. Roy, “Detection of sharp contour of the element of the WBC and segmentation of two leading elements like nucleus and cytoplasm,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2, No. 1, 545 (2012).

2011 (1)

D. D. Nawgaje, “Implementation of fuzzy inference system for white blood cell cancer detection using DSP TMS320C6711,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Spec. Issue123 (2011).

2002 (1)

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

1988 (1)

H. Samet and M. Tamminen, “Efficient component labeling of images of arbitrary dimension represented by linear bintrees,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 579 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

H. Steinhaus, “Sur la division des corps matériels en parties,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. C1, 801 (1956).

1904 (1)

G. Giemsa, “Eine Vereinfachung und Vervollkommnung meiner Methylenazur-Methylenblau-Eosin-Färbemethode zur Erzielung der Romanowsky-Nochtschen Chromatinfärbung,” Centralbl. für Bakt. 37, 308 (1904).

Abu-Mostafa, Y. S.

X. B. Song, Y. S. Abu-Mostafa, J. Sill, and H. Kasdan, “Incorporating contextual information in white blood cell identification,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Advances in Neural Information-Processing Systems 10, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, 1998, pp. 950–956.

Afanas’ev, Yu. I.

Yu. I. Afanas’ev, N. A. Yurina, and E. F. Kotovski?, Histology, Cytology, and Embryology (Meditsina, Moscow, 2002).

Bandyopadhyay, S. K.

S. K. Bandyopadhyay and S. Roy, “Detection of sharp contour of the element of the WBC and segmentation of two leading elements like nucleus and cytoplasm,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2, No. 1, 545 (2012).

Bols, L.

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Dyrnaev, A. V.

A. V. Dyrnaev and A. S. Potapov, “Combined method of counting erythrocytes on the images of blood smears,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Vest. SPbGU ITMO No. 01(77), 19 (2012).

Geusebroek, J. M.

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Geysen, J.

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Giemsa, G.

G. Giemsa, “Eine Vereinfachung und Vervollkommnung meiner Methylenazur-Methylenblau-Eosin-Färbemethode zur Erzielung der Romanowsky-Nochtschen Chromatinfärbung,” Centralbl. für Bakt. 37, 308 (1904).

Kasdan, H.

X. B. Song, Y. S. Abu-Mostafa, J. Sill, and H. Kasdan, “Incorporating contextual information in white blood cell identification,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Advances in Neural Information-Processing Systems 10, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, 1998, pp. 950–956.

Ke, Cheng

Cheng Ke, “White blood cell detection using a novel fuzzy morphological shared-weight neural network,” in International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology, Vol. 2, 2008, pp. 532–535.

Kotovskii, E. F.

Yu. I. Afanas’ev, N. A. Yurina, and E. F. Kotovski?, Histology, Cytology, and Embryology (Meditsina, Moscow, 2002).

Lloyd, S.

S. Lloyd, “Least square quantization in PCMs,” in Bell Telephone Laboratories Paper (1957), pp. 129–137.

Miller, M. N.

M. N. Miller, “Leukocyte classification by morphological criteria,” in Engineering Foundation Conference on Automatic Cytology, Saxtons River, VT, 1972, pp. 14–18.

Nawgaje, D. D.

D. D. Nawgaje, “Implementation of fuzzy inference system for white blood cell cancer detection using DSP TMS320C6711,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Spec. Issue123 (2011).

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Potapov, A. S.

A. V. Dyrnaev and A. S. Potapov, “Combined method of counting erythrocytes on the images of blood smears,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Vest. SPbGU ITMO No. 01(77), 19 (2012).

Roy, S.

S. K. Bandyopadhyay and S. Roy, “Detection of sharp contour of the element of the WBC and segmentation of two leading elements like nucleus and cytoplasm,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2, No. 1, 545 (2012).

Samet, H.

H. Samet and M. Tamminen, “Efficient component labeling of images of arbitrary dimension represented by linear bintrees,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 579 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sill, J.

X. B. Song, Y. S. Abu-Mostafa, J. Sill, and H. Kasdan, “Incorporating contextual information in white blood cell identification,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Advances in Neural Information-Processing Systems 10, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, 1998, pp. 950–956.

Song, X. B.

X. B. Song, Y. S. Abu-Mostafa, J. Sill, and H. Kasdan, “Incorporating contextual information in white blood cell identification,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Advances in Neural Information-Processing Systems 10, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, 1998, pp. 950–956.

Steinhaus, H.

H. Steinhaus, “Sur la division des corps matériels en parties,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. C1, 801 (1956).

Tamminen, M.

H. Samet and M. Tamminen, “Efficient component labeling of images of arbitrary dimension represented by linear bintrees,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 579 (1988).
[CrossRef]

ter Haar Romeny, B. M.

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Van Osta, P.

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Ver Donck, K.

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Yurina, N. A.

Yu. I. Afanas’ev, N. A. Yurina, and E. F. Kotovski?, Histology, Cytology, and Embryology (Meditsina, Moscow, 2002).

Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. (1)

H. Steinhaus, “Sur la division des corps matériels en parties,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. C1, 801 (1956).

Centralbl. für Bakt. (1)

G. Giemsa, “Eine Vereinfachung und Vervollkommnung meiner Methylenazur-Methylenblau-Eosin-Färbemethode zur Erzielung der Romanowsky-Nochtschen Chromatinfärbung,” Centralbl. für Bakt. 37, 308 (1904).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

H. Samet and M. Tamminen, “Efficient component labeling of images of arbitrary dimension represented by linear bintrees,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 579 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. (1)

S. K. Bandyopadhyay and S. Roy, “Detection of sharp contour of the element of the WBC and segmentation of two leading elements like nucleus and cytoplasm,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2, No. 1, 545 (2012).

Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Spec. Issue (1)

D. D. Nawgaje, “Implementation of fuzzy inference system for white blood cell cancer detection using DSP TMS320C6711,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Spec. Issue123 (2011).

Nauch. Tekhnich. Vest. SPbGU ITMO (1)

A. V. Dyrnaev and A. S. Potapov, “Combined method of counting erythrocytes on the images of blood smears,” Nauch. Tekhnich. Vest. SPbGU ITMO No. 01(77), 19 (2012).

Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. (1)

P. Van Osta, J. M. Geusebroek, K. Ver Donck, L. Bols, J. Geysen, and B. M. ter Haar Romeny, “The principles of scale space applied to structure and colour in light microscopy,” Proc. Royal Microsc. Soc. 37, 161 (2002).

Other (5)

Cheng Ke, “White blood cell detection using a novel fuzzy morphological shared-weight neural network,” in International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology, Vol. 2, 2008, pp. 532–535.

X. B. Song, Y. S. Abu-Mostafa, J. Sill, and H. Kasdan, “Incorporating contextual information in white blood cell identification,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Advances in Neural Information-Processing Systems 10, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, 1998, pp. 950–956.

M. N. Miller, “Leukocyte classification by morphological criteria,” in Engineering Foundation Conference on Automatic Cytology, Saxtons River, VT, 1972, pp. 14–18.

Yu. I. Afanas’ev, N. A. Yurina, and E. F. Kotovski?, Histology, Cytology, and Embryology (Meditsina, Moscow, 2002).

S. Lloyd, “Least square quantization in PCMs,” in Bell Telephone Laboratories Paper (1957), pp. 129–137.

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