Abstract

A theoretical model that features analytical formulas is developed for the evaluation of the light intensity that is radiated from a layered structure containing optically-active layers. The model is applied to an Alq<sub>3</sub>-based organic light-emitting diode to study the convenience of using a LiF/Al cathode and find optimal thicknesses of some of the device layers

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Milonni and P. L. Knight, "Spontaneous emission between mirrors," Opt. Commun. 9, 119 (1973).
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  3. F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Björk, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and K. Igeta, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A. 44, 669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. De Martini, F. Cairo, P. Mataloni, and F. Verzegnassi, "Thresholdless microlaser," Phys. Rev. A. 46, 4220 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Dutra, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics—The Strange Theory of Light in a Box, Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2005.
  7. P. Meystre and M. I. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics, 4th ed., Springer, Berlin, 2007.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Tews, "On the variation of luminescence lifetimes. The approximations of the approximative methods," J. Lumin. 9, 223 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and F. De Martini, "Radiation pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity," Opt. Commun. 82, 415 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Rigneault and S. Monneret, "Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 2356 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ciancaleoni, P. Mataloni, O. Jedrkiewicz, and F. De Martini, "Angular distribution of the spontaneous emission in a planar dielectric dye microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 1556 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Nichelatti, "Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media," Tech. Rep. RT/2009/4/FIM, ENEA, 2009.
  17. E. Nichelatti, M. Marrocco, and R. M. Montereali, "Cooperative optical effects in volumes embedded in layered media," J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 859 (2010).
  18. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed., Springer, NY, 1998.
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, "Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. R 39, 143 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

E. Nichelatti, M. Marrocco, and R. M. Montereali, "Cooperative optical effects in volumes embedded in layered media," J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 859 (2010).

2004 (1)

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

N. Danz, R. Waldhausl, A. Brauer, and R. Kowarschik, "Dipole lifetime in stratified media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, "Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. R 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Yamashita, J. Futenma, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, "Effect of location and width of doping region on efficiency in doped organic light-emitting diodes," Synth. Met. 111–112, 87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, "Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15, 1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Ciancaleoni, P. Mataloni, O. Jedrkiewicz, and F. De Martini, "Angular distribution of the spontaneous emission in a planar dielectric dye microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Rigneault and S. Monneret, "Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 2356 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. De Martini, F. Cairo, P. Mataloni, and F. Verzegnassi, "Thresholdless microlaser," Phys. Rev. A. 46, 4220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and F. De Martini, "Radiation pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity," Opt. Commun. 82, 415 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Björk, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and K. Igeta, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A. 44, 669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

K. H. Tews, "On the variation of luminescence lifetimes. The approximations of the approximative methods," J. Lumin. 9, 223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. W. Milonni and P. L. Knight, "Spontaneous emission between mirrors," Opt. Commun. 9, 119 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Kuhn, "Classical aspects of energy transfer in molecular systems," J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, G.

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, "Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15, 1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Björk, G.

G. Björk, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and K. Igeta, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A. 44, 669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brauer, A.

N. Danz, R. Waldhausl, A. Brauer, and R. Kowarschik, "Dipole lifetime in stratified media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

F. De Martini, F. Cairo, P. Mataloni, and F. Verzegnassi, "Thresholdless microlaser," Phys. Rev. A. 46, 4220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, "Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. R 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ciancaleoni, S.

S. Ciancaleoni, P. Mataloni, O. Jedrkiewicz, and F. De Martini, "Angular distribution of the spontaneous emission in a planar dielectric dye microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crescentini, L.

F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Danz, N.

N. Danz, R. Waldhausl, A. Brauer, and R. Kowarschik, "Dipole lifetime in stratified media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Martini, F.

S. Ciancaleoni, P. Mataloni, O. Jedrkiewicz, and F. De Martini, "Angular distribution of the spontaneous emission in a planar dielectric dye microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. De Martini, F. Cairo, P. Mataloni, and F. Verzegnassi, "Thresholdless microlaser," Phys. Rev. A. 46, 4220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and F. De Martini, "Radiation pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity," Opt. Commun. 82, 415 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Neve, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and F. De Martini, "Radiation pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity," Opt. Commun. 82, 415 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dutra, S. M.

S. M. Dutra, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics—The Strange Theory of Light in a Box, Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2005.

Forrest, S. R.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Futenma, J.

K. Yamashita, J. Futenma, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, "Effect of location and width of doping region on efficiency in doped organic light-emitting diodes," Synth. Met. 111–112, 87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, S.

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gambino, S.

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, "Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. R 39, 143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Igeta, K.

G. Björk, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and K. Igeta, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A. 44, 669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jedrkiewicz, O.

S. Ciancaleoni, P. Mataloni, O. Jedrkiewicz, and F. De Martini, "Angular distribution of the spontaneous emission in a planar dielectric dye microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

P. W. Milonni and P. L. Knight, "Spontaneous emission between mirrors," Opt. Commun. 9, 119 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

N. Danz, R. Waldhausl, A. Brauer, and R. Kowarschik, "Dipole lifetime in stratified media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, H.

H. Kuhn, "Classical aspects of energy transfer in molecular systems," J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, D. J.

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loreti, S.

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

G. Björk, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and K. Igeta, "Modification of spontaneous emission rate in planar dielectric microcavity structures," Phys. Rev. A. 44, 669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marrocco, M.

E. Nichelatti, M. Marrocco, and R. M. Montereali, "Cooperative optical effects in volumes embedded in layered media," J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 859 (2010).

F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mataloni, P.

S. Ciancaleoni, P. Mataloni, O. Jedrkiewicz, and F. De Martini, "Angular distribution of the spontaneous emission in a planar dielectric dye microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. De Martini, F. Cairo, P. Mataloni, and F. Verzegnassi, "Thresholdless microlaser," Phys. Rev. A. 46, 4220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, L. Crescentini, and R. Loudon, "Spontaneous emission in the optical microscopic cavity," Phys. Rev. A. 43, 2480 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, "Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15, 1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meystre, P.

P. Meystre and M. I. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics, 4th ed., Springer, Berlin, 2007.

Michelotti, F.

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Millard, I. S.

T. M. Brown, R. H. Friend, I. S. Millard, D. J. Lacey, J. H. Burroughes, and F. Cacialli, "LiF/Al cathodes and the effect of LiF thickness on the device characteristics and built-in potential of polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3096 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni and P. L. Knight, "Spontaneous emission between mirrors," Opt. Commun. 9, 119 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, T.

K. Yamashita, J. Futenma, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, "Effect of location and width of doping region on efficiency in doped organic light-emitting diodes," Synth. Met. 111–112, 87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monneret, S.

H. Rigneault and S. Monneret, "Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 2356 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R. M.

E. Nichelatti, M. Marrocco, and R. M. Montereali, "Cooperative optical effects in volumes embedded in layered media," J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 859 (2010).

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mori, T.

K. Yamashita, J. Futenma, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, "Effect of location and width of doping region on efficiency in doped organic light-emitting diodes," Synth. Met. 111–112, 87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nichelatti, E.

E. Nichelatti, M. Marrocco, and R. M. Montereali, "Cooperative optical effects in volumes embedded in layered media," J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 859 (2010).

E. Nichelatti, "Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media," Tech. Rep. RT/2009/4/FIM, ENEA, 2009.

Pace, A.

R. M. Montereali, S. Gambino, S. Loreti, S. Gagliardi, A. Pace, G. Baldacchini, and F. Michelotti, "Morphological, electrical and optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes with a LiF/Al cathode and an Al-hydroxyquinoline/diamine junction," Synth. Met. 143, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, Academic Press, London, 1991.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Academic Press, London, 1985.

Pode, R. B.

G. Baldacchini, S. Gagliardi, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, and R. B. Pode, "Optical spectroscopy of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium thin films," Philos. Mag. B 82, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

H. Rigneault and S. Monneret, "Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 2356 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, M. I.

P. Meystre and M. I. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics, 4th ed., Springer, Berlin, 2007.

Scully, M. O.

J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and F. De Martini, "Radiation pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity," Opt. Commun. 82, 415 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R.

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, "Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15, 1192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed., Springer, NY, 1998.

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tews, K. H.

K. H. Tews, "On the variation of luminescence lifetimes. The approximations of the approximative methods," J. Lumin. 9, 223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A. G.

D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, A. G. Tsekoun, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulovic, and M. E. Thompson, "Organic films deposited on Si p–n junctions: Accurate measurements of fluorescence internal efficiency, and application to luminescent antireflection coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Verzegnassi, F.

F. De Martini, F. Cairo, P. Mataloni, and F. Verzegnassi, "Thresholdless microlaser," Phys. Rev. A. 46, 4220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waldhausl, R.

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