Abstract

The optical properties of thin films of zinc selenide, aluminum oxide, and silicon nitride obtained by electron-beam evaporation using ion assistance have been investigated. It is shown that the resulting zinc selenide films have high roughness and weak protective properties. By using reactive sputtering, silicon nitride films are obtained that increase the limiting power of lasers by a factor of 2.5. Using silicon nitride as an example, it is shown that the optical characteristics of the films can be controlled by varying the parameters of the sputtering process. It is shown that aluminum oxide films obtained with ion assistance increase the limiting power of laser diodes by a factor of 2 by comparison with similar films obtained with no ion assistance.

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  1. V. N. Bessolov and M. V. Lebedev, "Chalcogenide passivation of III–V semiconductor surfaces," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, (11), 1281 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1141 (1998)].
  2. X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].
  4. P. G. Eliseev and G. T. Mikaelyan, "Optical strength of the mirror boundaries in a semiconductor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/GaAlAs in the pulsed regime," Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 22, 895 (1995) [Quantum Electron. 25, 863 (1995)].
  5. H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).
  6. J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. H. Guenther and H. K. Pulker, "Electron microscopic investigations of cross sections of optical thin films," Appl. Opt. 15, 2992 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, and W. G. Sainty, "Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Iwamoto, K. Ebata, and H. Nanba, "Development of a high-pressure ZnSe lens with low absorptivity," SEI Tech. Rev. 53, 92 (2002).
  11. T. V. Amochkina, "Algorithm for synthesizing multilayer optical coatings, based on the theory of equivalent layers," Vych. Met. Program. 6, 194 (2005).
  12. A. I. Mashin, A. V. Ershov, and D. A. Khokhlov, "Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, 1390 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1239 (1998)].
  13. S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

2009 (1)

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

2005 (2)

T. V. Amochkina, "Algorithm for synthesizing multilayer optical coatings, based on the theory of equivalent layers," Vych. Met. Program. 6, 194 (2005).

X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Iwamoto, K. Ebata, and H. Nanba, "Development of a high-pressure ZnSe lens with low absorptivity," SEI Tech. Rev. 53, 92 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

1998 (3)

H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).

V. N. Bessolov and M. V. Lebedev, "Chalcogenide passivation of III–V semiconductor surfaces," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, (11), 1281 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1141 (1998)].

A. I. Mashin, A. V. Ershov, and D. A. Khokhlov, "Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, 1390 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1239 (1998)].

1996 (1)

J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. G. Eliseev and G. T. Mikaelyan, "Optical strength of the mirror boundaries in a semiconductor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/GaAlAs in the pulsed regime," Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 22, 895 (1995) [Quantum Electron. 25, 863 (1995)].

1984 (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, and W. G. Sainty, "Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Amochkina, T. V.

T. V. Amochkina, "Algorithm for synthesizing multilayer optical coatings, based on the theory of equivalent layers," Vych. Met. Program. 6, 194 (2005).

Bessolov, V. N.

V. N. Bessolov and M. V. Lebedev, "Chalcogenide passivation of III–V semiconductor surfaces," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, (11), 1281 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1141 (1998)].

Ebata, K.

H. Iwamoto, K. Ebata, and H. Nanba, "Development of a high-pressure ZnSe lens with low absorptivity," SEI Tech. Rev. 53, 92 (2002).

Egorov, A. Yu.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev and G. T. Mikaelyan, "Optical strength of the mirror boundaries in a semiconductor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/GaAlAs in the pulsed regime," Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 22, 895 (1995) [Quantum Electron. 25, 863 (1995)].

Ershov, A. V.

A. I. Mashin, A. V. Ershov, and D. A. Khokhlov, "Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, 1390 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1239 (1998)].

Guenther, K. H.

Guerin, P.

J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harel, S.

J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hideki, H.

H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).

Hwangbo, C. K.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, H.

H. Iwamoto, K. Ebata, and H. Nanba, "Development of a high-pressure ZnSe lens with low absorptivity," SEI Tech. Rev. 53, 92 (2002).

Kapitonov, V. A.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Kengo, I.

H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).

Khokhlov, D. A.

A. I. Mashin, A. V. Ershov, and D. A. Khokhlov, "Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, 1390 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1239 (1998)].

Kochnev, I. V.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Lantratov, V. M.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Lebedev, M. V.

V. N. Bessolov and M. V. Lebedev, "Chalcogenide passivation of III–V semiconductor surfaces," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, (11), 1281 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1141 (1998)].

Ledentsov, N. N.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Livshits, D. A.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Lodha, G. S.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, and W. G. Sainty, "Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mashin, A. I.

A. I. Mashin, A. V. Ershov, and D. A. Khokhlov, "Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, 1390 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1239 (1998)].

Mikaelyan, G. T.

P. G. Eliseev and G. T. Mikaelyan, "Optical strength of the mirror boundaries in a semiconductor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/GaAlAs in the pulsed regime," Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 22, 895 (1995) [Quantum Electron. 25, 863 (1995)].

Modi, M. H.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Morimichi, M.

H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).

Nalet, T. A.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Nanba, H.

H. Iwamoto, K. Ebata, and H. Nanba, "Development of a high-pressure ZnSe lens with low absorptivity," SEI Tech. Rev. 53, 92 (2002).

Netterfield, R. P.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, and W. G. Sainty, "Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prakash, G. V.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Pulker, H. K.

Ray, S.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Riviere, J. P.

J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, and W. G. Sainty, "Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shen, G.

X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. P.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Sobahan, K. M. A.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, P.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Straboni, A.

J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamotsu, H.

H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).

Tarasov, I. S.

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

Tian, Z.

X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

H. Tamotsu, I. Kengo, M. Morimichi, and H. Hideki, "Surface passivation of GaAs with ultrathin Si3N4/Si interface control layer formed by MBE and in situ ECR plasma nitridation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 123–124, 599 (1998).

Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (3)

V. N. Bessolov and M. V. Lebedev, "Chalcogenide passivation of III–V semiconductor surfaces," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, (11), 1281 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1141 (1998)].

D. A. Livshits, A. Yu. Egorov, I. V. Kochnev, V. A. Kapitonov, V. M. Lantratov, N. N. Ledentsov, T. A. Nalet, and I. S. Tarasov, "Record power characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure lasers," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 35, 380 (2001) [Semiconductors 35, 365 (2001)].

A. I. Mashin, A. V. Ershov, and D. A. Khokhlov, "Effect of deposition and annealing conditions on the optical properties of amorphous silicon," Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 32, 1390 (1998) [Semiconductors 32, 1239 (1998)].

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, and W. G. Sainty, "Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, G. V. Prakash, M. H. Modi, S. Ray, and G. S. Lodha, "Optical and structural characterization of rapid thermal annealed nonstoichiometric silicon nitride film," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 1 (2008).

Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

P. G. Eliseev and G. T. Mikaelyan, "Optical strength of the mirror boundaries in a semiconductor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/GaAlAs in the pulsed regime," Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 22, 895 (1995) [Quantum Electron. 25, 863 (1995)].

SEI Tech. Rev. (1)

H. Iwamoto, K. Ebata, and H. Nanba, "Development of a high-pressure ZnSe lens with low absorptivity," SEI Tech. Rev. 53, 92 (2002).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

X. Shu, C. Xu, Z. Tian, and G. Shen, "ZnSe by electron-beam evaporation used for facet passivation of high-power laser diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (2)

J. P. Riviere, S. Harel, P. Guerin, and A. Straboni, "Structure of ZrO2 optical thin films prepared by dual ion beam reactive sputter deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 84, 470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vych. Met. Program. (1)

T. V. Amochkina, "Algorithm for synthesizing multilayer optical coatings, based on the theory of equivalent layers," Vych. Met. Program. 6, 194 (2005).

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