Abstract

This paper analyzes the development trends of devices and processes for fabricating antenna-coupled microbolometers for the IR, submillimeter, and millimeter ranges. Depending on the problem to be solved, these thermal detectors can be self-contained or can be built into linear or two-dimensional arrays and can operate at temperatures of 300, 78, and 4 K. The temperature determines the choice of material of the thin-film heat-sensitive element—metal, semiconductor, high-temperature or classical superconductor. The planar antennas used in these detectors provide efficient reception of radiation in the specified spectral range. The achievable parameters and examples of the use of antenna-coupled microbolometers are discussed.

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  22. A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, "A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Luukanen, R. H. Hadfield, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "A superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer for THz applications," Proc. SPIE 5411, 121 (2004).
  24. J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, P. Helistö, and H. Seppä, "Low-noise readout of superconducting microbolometers based on electrothermal feedback," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, 319 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. J. Gonzalez, J. Alda, B. Ilic, and G. D. Boreman, "Infrared antennas coupled to lithographic Fresnel zone plate lenses," Appl. Opt. 43, 6067 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  30. M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

J. Alda and F. J. Gonzalez, "Fresnel-zone antenna for dual-band detection at millimeter and infrared wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 34, 809 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

2007 (1)

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

2006 (3)

C. F. Middleton and G. D. Boreman, "Technique for thermal isolation of antenna-coupled infrared microbolometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2356 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, P. Helistö, and H. Seppä, "Low-noise readout of superconducting microbolometers based on electrothermal feedback," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, 319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Passive hyperspectral terahertz imagery for security screening using a cryogenic microbolometer," Proc. SPIE 5789, 127 (2005).

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

2004 (7)

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Active millimeter-wave video rate imaging with a staring 120-element microbolometer array," Proc. SPIE 5410, 195 (2004).

A. J. Miller, A. Luukanen, and E. N. Grossman, "Micromachined antenna-coupled uncooled microbolometers for terahertz imaging arrays," Proc. SPIE 5411, 18 (2004).

E. N. Grossman, A. Luukanen, and A. J. Miller, "Terahertz active direct detection imagers," Proc. SPIE 5411, 68 (2004).

A. Luukanen, R. H. Hadfield, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "A superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer for THz applications," Proc. SPIE 5411, 121 (2004).

F. J. Gonzalez, C. S. Ashley, P. G. Clem, and G. D. Boreman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometer arrays with aerogel thermal isolation," Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Gonzalez, J. Alda, B. Ilic, and G. D. Boreman, "Infrared antennas coupled to lithographic Fresnel zone plate lenses," Appl. Opt. 43, 6067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, "A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Grossman and A. J. Miller, "Active millimeter-wave imaging for concealed-weapons detection," Proc. SPIE 5077, 62 (2003).

2002 (2)

G. D. Boreman, "Divide and conquer," SPIE’s OE Magazine (2), 47 (2002).

F. J. Gonzalez, M. A. Gritz, C. Fumeaux, and G. D. Boreman, "Two-dimensional array of antenna-coupled microbolometers," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. N. Grossman, S. Nolen, N. G. Paulter, and C. D. Reintsema, "Concealed weapons detection system using uncooled, pulsed, imaging arrays of millimeter-wave bolometers," Proc. SPIE 4373, 7 (2001).

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. Schulman and D. Chow, "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

1994 (1)

J. P. Rice, E. N. Grossman, L. J. Borcherdt, and D. A. Rudman, "High-Tc superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer on silicon," Proc. SPIE 2159, 98 (1994).

1993 (1)

V. N. Leonov and I. A. Khrebtov, "Thermal-radiation detector antennas," Prib. Tekh. Eksp. 6, (4), 11 (1993).

Agravante, H. H.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Alda, J.

Aseev, A. L.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

Ashley, C. S.

F. J. Gonzalez, C. S. Ashley, P. G. Clem, and G. D. Boreman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometer arrays with aerogel thermal isolation," Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biedenbender, M.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Bjarnason, J. E.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borcherdt, L. J.

J. P. Rice, E. N. Grossman, L. J. Borcherdt, and D. A. Rudman, "High-Tc superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer on silicon," Proc. SPIE 2159, 98 (1994).

Boreman, G. D.

C. F. Middleton and G. D. Boreman, "Technique for thermal isolation of antenna-coupled infrared microbolometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2356 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

F. J. Gonzalez, J. Alda, B. Ilic, and G. D. Boreman, "Infrared antennas coupled to lithographic Fresnel zone plate lenses," Appl. Opt. 43, 6067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Gonzalez, C. S. Ashley, P. G. Clem, and G. D. Boreman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometer arrays with aerogel thermal isolation," Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boreman, "Divide and conquer," SPIE’s OE Magazine (2), 47 (2002).

F. J. Gonzalez, M. A. Gritz, C. Fumeaux, and G. D. Boreman, "Two-dimensional array of antenna-coupled microbolometers," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, "Lithographic antennas at visible frequencies," Opt. Lett. 24, 1629 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

Celis, M. A.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. L. J.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Chow, D.

J. Schulman and D. Chow, "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clem, P. G.

F. J. Gonzalez, C. S. Ashley, P. G. Clem, and G. D. Boreman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometer arrays with aerogel thermal isolation," Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dem’yanenko, M. A.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dietlein, C.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

Dietlein, C. R.

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Dow, G. G. S.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Esaev, D. G.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, M. R.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Fomin, B. I.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

Fornaca, S. W.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Fumeaux, C.

F. J. Gonzalez, M. A. Gritz, C. Fumeaux, and G. D. Boreman, "Two-dimensional array of antenna-coupled microbolometers," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, "Lithographic antennas at visible frequencies," Opt. Lett. 24, 1629 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, F. J.

J. Alda and F. J. Gonzalez, "Fresnel-zone antenna for dual-band detection at millimeter and infrared wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 34, 809 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Gonzalez, C. S. Ashley, P. G. Clem, and G. D. Boreman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometer arrays with aerogel thermal isolation," Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Gonzalez, J. Alda, B. Ilic, and G. D. Boreman, "Infrared antennas coupled to lithographic Fresnel zone plate lenses," Appl. Opt. 43, 6067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Gonzalez, M. A. Gritz, C. Fumeaux, and G. D. Boreman, "Two-dimensional array of antenna-coupled microbolometers," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

Gritz, M. A.

F. J. Gonzalez, M. A. Gritz, C. Fumeaux, and G. D. Boreman, "Two-dimensional array of antenna-coupled microbolometers," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grönberg, L.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Grossman, E. N.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Passive hyperspectral terahertz imagery for security screening using a cryogenic microbolometer," Proc. SPIE 5789, 127 (2005).

A. J. Miller, A. Luukanen, and E. N. Grossman, "Micromachined antenna-coupled uncooled microbolometers for terahertz imaging arrays," Proc. SPIE 5411, 18 (2004).

A. Luukanen, R. H. Hadfield, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "A superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer for THz applications," Proc. SPIE 5411, 121 (2004).

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Active millimeter-wave video rate imaging with a staring 120-element microbolometer array," Proc. SPIE 5410, 195 (2004).

E. N. Grossman, A. Luukanen, and A. J. Miller, "Terahertz active direct detection imagers," Proc. SPIE 5411, 68 (2004).

E. N. Grossman and A. J. Miller, "Active millimeter-wave imaging for concealed-weapons detection," Proc. SPIE 5077, 62 (2003).

E. N. Grossman, S. Nolen, N. G. Paulter, and C. D. Reintsema, "Concealed weapons detection system using uncooled, pulsed, imaging arrays of millimeter-wave bolometers," Proc. SPIE 4373, 7 (2001).

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

J. P. Rice, E. N. Grossman, L. J. Borcherdt, and D. A. Rudman, "High-Tc superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer on silicon," Proc. SPIE 2159, 98 (1994).

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Hacker, J. B.

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

Hadfield, R. H.

A. Luukanen, R. H. Hadfield, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "A superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer for THz applications," Proc. SPIE 5411, 121 (2004).

Hauss, B. I.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

He, N.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Helistö, P.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, P. Helistö, and H. Seppä, "Low-noise readout of superconducting microbolometers based on electrothermal feedback," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, 319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Ilic, B.

Jin, B. B.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Johnson, R. L.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Jordan, K.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Kang, L.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Kazemi, H.

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

Khrebtov, I. A.

V. N. Leonov and I. A. Khrebtov, "Thermal-radiation detector antennas," Prib. Tekh. Eksp. 6, (4), 11 (1993).

Knyazev, B. A.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulipanov, G. N.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, R. T.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Lail, B.

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

Lee, P. S.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Lee, W. M.

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leonov, V. N.

V. N. Leonov and I. A. Khrebtov, "Thermal-radiation detector antennas," Prib. Tekh. Eksp. 6, (4), 11 (1993).

Lo, D.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Lu, X. H.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Luukanen, A.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Passive hyperspectral terahertz imagery for security screening using a cryogenic microbolometer," Proc. SPIE 5789, 127 (2005).

A. J. Miller, A. Luukanen, and E. N. Grossman, "Micromachined antenna-coupled uncooled microbolometers for terahertz imaging arrays," Proc. SPIE 5411, 18 (2004).

A. Luukanen, R. H. Hadfield, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "A superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer for THz applications," Proc. SPIE 5411, 121 (2004).

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Active millimeter-wave video rate imaging with a staring 120-element microbolometer array," Proc. SPIE 5410, 195 (2004).

E. N. Grossman, A. Luukanen, and A. J. Miller, "Terahertz active direct detection imagers," Proc. SPIE 5411, 68 (2004).

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, "A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Middleton, C.

H. Kazemi, J. D. Zimmerman, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, G. D. Boreman, J. B. Hacker, B. Lail, and C. Middleton, "First MMW characterization of ErAs/InAlGaAs/InP semimetal–semiconductor–Schottky diode (S3) detectors for passive millimeter-wave and infrared imaging," Proc. SPIE 5789, 80 (2005).

Middleton, C. F.

C. F. Middleton and G. D. Boreman, "Technique for thermal isolation of antenna-coupled infrared microbolometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2356 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Passive hyperspectral terahertz imagery for security screening using a cryogenic microbolometer," Proc. SPIE 5789, 127 (2005).

A. J. Miller, A. Luukanen, and E. N. Grossman, "Micromachined antenna-coupled uncooled microbolometers for terahertz imaging arrays," Proc. SPIE 5411, 18 (2004).

A. Luukanen, R. H. Hadfield, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "A superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer for THz applications," Proc. SPIE 5411, 121 (2004).

E. N. Grossman, A. Luukanen, and A. J. Miller, "Terahertz active direct detection imagers," Proc. SPIE 5411, 68 (2004).

A. Luukanen, A. J. Miller, and E. N. Grossman, "Active millimeter-wave video rate imaging with a staring 120-element microbolometer array," Proc. SPIE 5410, 195 (2004).

E. N. Grossman and A. J. Miller, "Active millimeter-wave imaging for concealed-weapons detection," Proc. SPIE 5077, 62 (2003).

Nolen, S.

E. N. Grossman, S. Nolen, N. G. Paulter, and C. D. Reintsema, "Concealed weapons detection system using uncooled, pulsed, imaging arrays of millimeter-wave bolometers," Proc. SPIE 4373, 7 (2001).

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

Ovsyuk, V. N.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

Paulter, N. G.

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

E. N. Grossman, S. Nolen, N. G. Paulter, and C. D. Reintsema, "Concealed weapons detection system using uncooled, pulsed, imaging arrays of millimeter-wave bolometers," Proc. SPIE 4373, 7 (2001).

Pekola, J. P.

A. Luukanen and J. P. Pekola, "A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Penttilä, J. S.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, P. Helistö, and H. Seppä, "Low-noise readout of superconducting microbolometers based on electrothermal feedback," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, 319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Quon, B. H.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Reintsema, C. D.

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

E. N. Grossman, S. Nolen, N. G. Paulter, and C. D. Reintsema, "Concealed weapons detection system using uncooled, pulsed, imaging arrays of millimeter-wave bolometers," Proc. SPIE 4373, 7 (2001).

Rice, J. P.

J. P. Rice, E. N. Grossman, L. J. Borcherdt, and D. A. Rudman, "High-Tc superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer on silicon," Proc. SPIE 2159, 98 (1994).

Rowe, A. W.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Rudman, D. A.

J. P. Rice, E. N. Grossman, L. J. Borcherdt, and D. A. Rudman, "High-Tc superconducting antenna-coupled microbolometer on silicon," Proc. SPIE 2159, 98 (1994).

Samec, T. K.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Schulman, J.

J. Schulman and D. Chow, "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seppä, H.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, P. Helistö, and H. Seppä, "Low-noise readout of superconducting microbolometers based on electrothermal feedback," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, 319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Shi, S. C.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Shoucri, M.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Sipola, H.

C. Dietlein, A. Luukanen, J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, L. Grönberg, H. Seppä, P. Helistö, and E. N. Grossman, "Performance comparison of Nb and NbN antenna-coupled microbolometers," Proc. SPIE 6549, 6549OM-1 (2007).

J. S. Penttilä, H. Sipola, P. Helistö, and H. Seppä, "Low-noise readout of superconducting microbolometers based on electrothermal feedback," Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, 319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, P. Helistö, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "An array antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers for passive indoors real-time THz imaging," Proc. SPIE 6212, 270 (2006).

P. Helistö, A. Luukanen, L. Grönberg, J. S. Penttilä, H. Seppä, H. Sipola, C. R. Dietlein, and E. N. Grossman, "Antenna-coupled microbolometers for passive THz direct detection imaging arrays," Proc. of the First European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 35‒38.

Stenbakken, G. N.

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

Vinokurov, N. A.

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, A. L. Aseev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Microbolometer detector arrays for the infrared and terahertz ranges," Opt. Zh. 76, (12), 5 (2009) [J. Opt. Technol. 76, 739 (2009)].

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, "Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waltrip, B. C.

N. G. Paulter, E. N. Grossman, G. N. Stenbakken, B. C. Waltrip, S. Nolen, and C. D. Reintsema, "Design of an active mm-wave concealed-object imaging system," Proc. SPIE 4373, 64 (2001).

Wu, P. H.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Xu, W. W.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Yao, Q. J.

X. H. Lu, L. Kang, J. Chen, Y. Y. Zhong, N. He, L. B. Zhang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Xu, P. H. Wu, Q. J. Yao, and S. C. Shi, "A terahertz detector operating at room temperature," Proc. SPIE 7277, 72770N-1 (2008).

Yokoyama, K. E.

L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, M. Biedenbender, G. G. S. Dow, M. R. Flannery, S. W. Fornaca, B. I. Hauss, R. L. Johnson, R. T. Kuroda, K. Jordan, P. S. Lee, D. Lo, B. H. Quon, A. W. Rowe, T. K. Samec, M. Shoucri, K. E. Yokoyama, and Y. Yun, "Passive millimeter-wave camera," Proc. SPIE 3064, 15 (1997).

Yujiri, L.

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