Abstract

This paper presents a review of work devoted to studies of layers based on amorphous carbon, for orienting liquid crystals. Noncontact methods are described for creating surface anisotropy in diamondlike and polymerlike layers of amorphous carbon by means of plasma and ion beams, as well as by UV radiation. The effect of the surface-processing conditions of such layers on the orientational character and the initial tilt angle of the nematic-liquid-crystal director is analyzed, along with the optical and dynamic properties of devices based on these layers.

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  1. J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Ch.-Y. Lee, Y.-L. Liu, Y. W. Kuen, M.-Y. Chen, and J.-Ch. Hwang, "Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid-crystal alignment," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 226 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.
  4. K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-M. Jo, J.-Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal aligning capabilities and eo characteristics of the TN-LCD with ion-beam exposure on a new diamond-like carbon thin film layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410, 319 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Dvorak and D. Arena, "Diamond-like-carbon LC-alignment layers for application in LCOS microdisplays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 281 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and J. Jang, "Liquid-crystal alignment capability by the UV alignment method in a-C:H thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 42, L114B (2003).
  12. E. S. Luk’yanchenko, V. A. Kozunov, and V. I. Grigos, "Orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Usp. Khimii 54, 214 (1985).
  13. J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, (7), 297 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Liquid-crystal orientation induced by polymeric surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1270 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Watanabe, T. Nakamo, T. Satoh, H. Hatoh, and Y. Onki, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for LCs," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 373 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. J. Sprokel and R. M. Gibson, "Liquid-crystal alignment produced by RF-plasma-deposited films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 557 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Yasuda, Plasma Polymerization, Academic Press, New York, 1985, Mir, Moscow, 1988.
  18. E. A. Konshina, "Alignment of nematic LCs on the surface of amorphous hydrogenated carbon," Proc. SPIE 2731, 20 (1995).
  19. E. A. Konshina, "Interaction between a nematic liquid crystal and amorphous hydrocarbon orienting layers," Kristallografiya 40, 1074 (1995) [Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 999 (1995)].
  20. A. I. Vangonen and E. A. Konshina, "ATR-IR spectroscopy study of NLC orientation at the plasma-polymerized layers surface," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 507 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. A. Konshina, V. A. Tolmachiev, A. I. Vangonen, and A. P. Onokhov, "Novel alignment layers produced by CVD technique from hydrocarbon plasma," Proc. SPIE. 3015, 52 (1997).
  22. E. A. Konshina and M. A. Fedorov, "Effect of boundary conditions on phase modulation of light in a nematic liquid crystal featuring the s-effect," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 32, (22), 15 (2006) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 32, 964 (2006)].
  23. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, N. L. Ivanova, and L. P. Amosova, "Anomalous light transmission by nematic liquid-crystal cells," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, (2), 39 (2008) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 61 (2008)].
  24. E. A. Konshina, V. M. Tolmachev, A. I. Vangonen, and L. A. Fatkulina, "Study of the properties of plasma-polymerized layers and their effect on the orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Zh. 64, (5), 88 (1997) [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 476 (1997)].
  25. M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Influence of relief geometry on the surface of condensed layers on the alignment of LCs," Proc. SPIE 2731, 25 (1995).
  26. M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Effect of the surface structure of condensed layers on the orientation of liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 65, (10), 175 (1995) [Tech. Phys. 40, 1071 (1995)].
  27. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, "Effect of surface on phase modulation of light in a nematic layer," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, (2), 71 (2008) [Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].
  28. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, "Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods," Opt. Zh. 73, (12), 9 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].
  29. L. Rousille and J. Robert, "Liquid-crystal quasi-homeotropic orientation induced by a polymer deposited on a SiO surface," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3975 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects using a-C : H thin films deposited at RF bias condition," Ferroelectrics 310, 63 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, Y.-H. Jeong, K.-C. Kim, H.-J. Ahn, and H.-K. Baik, "Electro-optical characteristic of ion-beam-aligned FFS-LCDs on diamond-like-carbon thin film," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 227 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, K. Y. Wu, and J. Hwang, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C : H films by an argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure," Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1639 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, "Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. Kumagai, K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, R. Arafune, Y. Nakabayashi, and S. Ushioda, "Molecular orientation of liquid-crystal monolayers on polyimide films exposed to linearly polarized UV light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3615 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. Usami, K. Sakamoto, and S. Ushioda, "Influence of molecular structure on anisotropic photoinduced decomposition of polyimide molecules," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5339 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. A. V. Baranov, Ya. S. Bobovich, E. A. Konshina, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Giant Raman scattering of hydrogenated films of amorphous carbon a-C : H," Opt. Spektrosk. 67, 456 (1989) [Opt. Spectrosc. 67, 267 (1989)].
  42. E. A. Konshina and T. S. Turovskaya, "Study of the surface microstructure of thin a-C : H layers orienting liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 68, (1), 106 (1998) [Tech. Phys. 43, 97 (1998)].
  43. E. A. Konshina and V. A. Tolmachev, "Edge angles and the surface energy of layers of amorphous hydrogenerated carbon," Kolloid. Zh. 58, 491 (1996).
  44. V. A. Tolmachev and E. A. Konshina, "Estimating the interaction energy at a solid–liquid-crystal interface," Opt. Zh. 65, (7), 39 (1998) [J. Opt. Technol. 65, 543 (1998)].
  45. M. Silinskas and A. Grigonis, "Low-energy post-growth irradiation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) films," Diamond Relat. Mater. 11, 1026 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. I. Vangonen, E. A. Konshina, and V. A. Tolmachev, "Adsorption properties of layers of materials that orient liquid crystals," Zh. Fiz. Khimii 71, 1102 (1997).
  47. E. A. Konshina and A. I. Vangonen, "Study of the orientation of nematic thin films by the method of IR multiple frustrated-total-internal-reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Zh. 65, (7), 34 (1998) [J. Opt. Technol. 65, 539 (1998)].
  48. M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, "Alignment-layer effects on thin liquid-crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  49. V. N. Vasil’ev, E. A. Konshina, D. S. Kostomarov, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and E. O. Gavrish, "Influence of the alignment layer and the liquid crystal layer thickness on the characteristics of electrically controlled optical modulators," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 79, (11), 111 (2009) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 79, 498 (2009)].
  50. M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009

V. N. Vasil’ev, E. A. Konshina, D. S. Kostomarov, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and E. O. Gavrish, "Influence of the alignment layer and the liquid crystal layer thickness on the characteristics of electrically controlled optical modulators," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 79, (11), 111 (2009) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 79, 498 (2009)].

2008

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, "Alignment-layer effects on thin liquid-crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-Y. Lee, Y.-L. Liu, Y. W. Kuen, M.-Y. Chen, and J.-Ch. Hwang, "Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid-crystal alignment," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, N. L. Ivanova, and L. P. Amosova, "Anomalous light transmission by nematic liquid-crystal cells," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, (2), 39 (2008) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 61 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, "Effect of surface on phase modulation of light in a nematic layer," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, (2), 71 (2008) [Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, K. Y. Wu, and J. Hwang, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C : H films by an argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure," Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. A. Konshina and M. A. Fedorov, "Effect of boundary conditions on phase modulation of light in a nematic liquid crystal featuring the s-effect," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 32, (22), 15 (2006) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 32, 964 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, "Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods," Opt. Zh. 73, (12), 9 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Dvorak and D. Arena, "Diamond-like-carbon LC-alignment layers for application in LCOS microdisplays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, Y.-H. Jeong, K.-C. Kim, H.-J. Ahn, and H.-K. Baik, "Electro-optical characteristic of ion-beam-aligned FFS-LCDs on diamond-like-carbon thin film," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Jo, J.-Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal aligning capabilities and eo characteristics of the TN-LCD with ion-beam exposure on a new diamond-like carbon thin film layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects using a-C : H thin films deposited at RF bias condition," Ferroelectrics 310, 63 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and J. Jang, "Liquid-crystal alignment capability by the UV alignment method in a-C:H thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 42, L114B (2003).

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Silinskas and A. Grigonis, "Low-energy post-growth irradiation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) films," Diamond Relat. Mater. 11, 1026 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Usami, K. Sakamoto, and S. Ushioda, "Influence of molecular structure on anisotropic photoinduced decomposition of polyimide molecules," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

K. Kumagai, K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, R. Arafune, Y. Nakabayashi, and S. Ushioda, "Molecular orientation of liquid-crystal monolayers on polyimide films exposed to linearly polarized UV light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. A. Konshina and T. S. Turovskaya, "Study of the surface microstructure of thin a-C : H layers orienting liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 68, (1), 106 (1998) [Tech. Phys. 43, 97 (1998)].

V. A. Tolmachev and E. A. Konshina, "Estimating the interaction energy at a solid–liquid-crystal interface," Opt. Zh. 65, (7), 39 (1998) [J. Opt. Technol. 65, 543 (1998)].

E. A. Konshina and A. I. Vangonen, "Study of the orientation of nematic thin films by the method of IR multiple frustrated-total-internal-reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Zh. 65, (7), 34 (1998) [J. Opt. Technol. 65, 539 (1998)].

1997

A. I. Vangonen, E. A. Konshina, and V. A. Tolmachev, "Adsorption properties of layers of materials that orient liquid crystals," Zh. Fiz. Khimii 71, 1102 (1997).

E. A. Konshina, V. M. Tolmachev, A. I. Vangonen, and L. A. Fatkulina, "Study of the properties of plasma-polymerized layers and their effect on the orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Zh. 64, (5), 88 (1997) [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 476 (1997)].

A. I. Vangonen and E. A. Konshina, "ATR-IR spectroscopy study of NLC orientation at the plasma-polymerized layers surface," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Konshina, V. A. Tolmachiev, A. I. Vangonen, and A. P. Onokhov, "Novel alignment layers produced by CVD technique from hydrocarbon plasma," Proc. SPIE. 3015, 52 (1997).

1996

E. A. Konshina and V. A. Tolmachev, "Edge angles and the surface energy of layers of amorphous hydrogenerated carbon," Kolloid. Zh. 58, 491 (1996).

1995

E. A. Konshina, "Alignment of nematic LCs on the surface of amorphous hydrogenated carbon," Proc. SPIE 2731, 20 (1995).

E. A. Konshina, "Interaction between a nematic liquid crystal and amorphous hydrocarbon orienting layers," Kristallografiya 40, 1074 (1995) [Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 999 (1995)].

M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Influence of relief geometry on the surface of condensed layers on the alignment of LCs," Proc. SPIE 2731, 25 (1995).

M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Effect of the surface structure of condensed layers on the orientation of liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 65, (10), 175 (1995) [Tech. Phys. 40, 1071 (1995)].

1992

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, "Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. V. Baranov, Ya. S. Bobovich, E. A. Konshina, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Giant Raman scattering of hydrogenated films of amorphous carbon a-C : H," Opt. Spektrosk. 67, 456 (1989) [Opt. Spectrosc. 67, 267 (1989)].

1987

R. Watanabe, T. Nakamo, T. Satoh, H. Hatoh, and Y. Onki, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for LCs," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

E. S. Luk’yanchenko, V. A. Kozunov, and V. I. Grigos, "Orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Usp. Khimii 54, 214 (1985).

1979

L. Rousille and J. Robert, "Liquid-crystal quasi-homeotropic orientation induced by a polymer deposited on a SiO surface," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3975 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

G. J. Sprokel and R. M. Gibson, "Liquid-crystal alignment produced by RF-plasma-deposited films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 557 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Liquid-crystal orientation induced by polymeric surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1270 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, (7), 297 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, N. L. Ivanova, and L. P. Amosova, "Anomalous light transmission by nematic liquid-crystal cells," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, (2), 39 (2008) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 61 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, "Effect of surface on phase modulation of light in a nematic layer," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, (2), 71 (2008) [Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, "Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods," Opt. Zh. 73, (12), 9 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

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J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
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H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
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K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
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C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
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Y.-M. Jo, J.-Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal aligning capabilities and eo characteristics of the TN-LCD with ion-beam exposure on a new diamond-like carbon thin film layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410, 319 (2004).
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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, "Effect of surface on phase modulation of light in a nematic layer," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, (2), 71 (2008) [Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, N. L. Ivanova, and L. P. Amosova, "Anomalous light transmission by nematic liquid-crystal cells," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, (2), 39 (2008) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 61 (2008)].

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Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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Hwang, B. H.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
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J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, Y.-H. Jeong, K.-C. Kim, H.-J. Ahn, and H.-K. Baik, "Electro-optical characteristic of ion-beam-aligned FFS-LCDs on diamond-like-carbon thin film," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 227 (2005).
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J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and J. Jang, "Liquid-crystal alignment capability by the UV alignment method in a-C:H thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 42, L114B (2003).

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J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, Y.-H. Jeong, K.-C. Kim, H.-J. Ahn, and H.-K. Baik, "Electro-optical characteristic of ion-beam-aligned FFS-LCDs on diamond-like-carbon thin film," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 227 (2005).
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K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
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Kang, H. K.

C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
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Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

Katoh, Y.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
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H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
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Kim, J. T.

H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-B.

C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
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H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
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K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
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J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, Y.-H. Jeong, K.-C. Kim, H.-J. Ahn, and H.-K. Baik, "Electro-optical characteristic of ion-beam-aligned FFS-LCDs on diamond-like-carbon thin film," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 227 (2005).
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Kostomarov, D. S.

V. N. Vasil’ev, E. A. Konshina, D. S. Kostomarov, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and E. O. Gavrish, "Influence of the alignment layer and the liquid crystal layer thickness on the characteristics of electrically controlled optical modulators," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 79, (11), 111 (2009) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 79, 498 (2009)].

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H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, K. Y. Wu, and J. Hwang, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C : H films by an argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure," Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1639 (2008).
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K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kou, S. C.

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
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E. S. Luk’yanchenko, V. A. Kozunov, and V. I. Grigos, "Orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Usp. Khimii 54, 214 (1985).

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Ch.-Y. Lee, Y.-L. Liu, Y. W. Kuen, M.-Y. Chen, and J.-Ch. Hwang, "Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid-crystal alignment," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 226 (2008).
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K. Kumagai, K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, R. Arafune, Y. Nakabayashi, and S. Ushioda, "Molecular orientation of liquid-crystal monolayers on polyimide films exposed to linearly polarized UV light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3615 (1999).
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Lacey, J.

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

Lacey, J. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacey, J. L.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lang, N. D.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-D.

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-Y.

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Ch.-Y.

Ch.-Y. Lee, Y.-L. Liu, Y. W. Kuen, M.-Y. Chen, and J.-Ch. Hwang, "Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid-crystal alignment," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lien, S. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lien, S. C.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lien, S.-C. A.

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

Liu, C. H.

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.-C.

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-L.

Ch.-Y. Lee, Y.-L. Liu, Y. W. Kuen, M.-Y. Chen, and J.-Ch. Hwang, "Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid-crystal alignment," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

Luk’yanchenko, E. S.

E. S. Luk’yanchenko, V. A. Kozunov, and V. I. Grigos, "Orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Usp. Khimii 54, 214 (1985).

Luning, J.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
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M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
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Mizushima, S. J.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakabayashi, Y.

K. Kumagai, K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, R. Arafune, Y. Nakabayashi, and S. Ushioda, "Molecular orientation of liquid-crystal monolayers on polyimide films exposed to linearly polarized UV light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagaki, J.

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

Nakagawa, Y.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Influence of relief geometry on the surface of condensed layers on the alignment of LCs," Proc. SPIE 2731, 25 (1995).

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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
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H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
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K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
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Y.-M. Jo, J.-Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal aligning capabilities and eo characteristics of the TN-LCD with ion-beam exposure on a new diamond-like carbon thin film layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410, 319 (2004).
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J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects using a-C : H thin films deposited at RF bias condition," Ferroelectrics 310, 63 (2004).
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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
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K. Usami, K. Sakamoto, and S. Ushioda, "Influence of molecular structure on anisotropic photoinduced decomposition of polyimide molecules," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5339 (2001).
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K. Kumagai, K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, R. Arafune, Y. Nakabayashi, and S. Ushioda, "Molecular orientation of liquid-crystal monolayers on polyimide films exposed to linearly polarized UV light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3615 (1999).
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Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
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K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
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Y.-M. Jo, J.-Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal aligning capabilities and eo characteristics of the TN-LCD with ion-beam exposure on a new diamond-like carbon thin film layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410, 319 (2004).
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K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
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Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
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M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Effect of the surface structure of condensed layers on the orientation of liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 65, (10), 175 (1995) [Tech. Phys. 40, 1071 (1995)].

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K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
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K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
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K. Usami, K. Sakamoto, and S. Ushioda, "Influence of molecular structure on anisotropic photoinduced decomposition of polyimide molecules," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5339 (2001).
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K. Kumagai, K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, R. Arafune, Y. Nakabayashi, and S. Ushioda, "Molecular orientation of liquid-crystal monolayers on polyimide films exposed to linearly polarized UV light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3615 (1999).
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Wako, K.

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

Watanabe, R.

R. Watanabe, T. Nakamo, T. Satoh, H. Hatoh, and Y. Onki, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for LCs," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. K.

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. K.

H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, K. Y. Wu, and J. Hwang, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C : H films by an argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure," Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. Y.

H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, K. Y. Wu, and J. Hwang, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C : H films by an argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure," Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, "Alignment-layer effects on thin liquid-crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

H. Yasuda, Plasma Polymerization, Academic Press, New York, 1985, Mir, Moscow, 1988.

Yeh, C.-M.

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zann, A.

J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Liquid-crystal orientation induced by polymeric surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1270 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, (7), 297 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, (7), 297 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ahn, J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, and H. K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, "Alignment-layer effects on thin liquid-crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Relat. Mater.

M. Silinskas and A. Grigonis, "Low-energy post-growth irradiation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) films," Diamond Relat. Mater. 11, 1026 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, K. Y. Wu, and J. Hwang, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C : H films by an argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure," Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects using a-C : H thin films deposited at RF bias condition," Ferroelectrics 310, 63 (2004).
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J. Appl. Phys.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. J. Mizushima, "Generation mechanism of residual direct-current voltage in a liquid-crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid-crystal and alignment-layer materials," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Dubois, M. Gazard, and A. Zann, "Liquid-crystal orientation induced by polymeric surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1270 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, S. J. Chang, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, C.-W. Chen, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, S. C. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Passivation effect on the liquid crystal alignment on a-C:H films: a two-step treatment by argon and hydrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wu, C.-H. Chen, C.-M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P.-C. Liu, C.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C.-D. Lee, "Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

G. J. Sprokel and R. M. Gibson, "Liquid-crystal alignment produced by RF-plasma-deposited films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 557 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

B. J. Dvorak and D. Arena, "Diamond-like-carbon LC-alignment layers for application in LCOS microdisplays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Hwang, C.-J. Park, D.-S. Seo, Y.-H. Jeong, K.-C. Kim, H.-J. Ahn, and H.-K. Baik, "Electro-optical characteristic of ion-beam-aligned FFS-LCDs on diamond-like-carbon thin film," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. K. Kang, D.-S. Seo, H. J. Ahn, J.-B. Kim, K.-C. Kim, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal alignment effects and electro optical performances of twisted nematic-liquid crystal display using ion-beam alignment method on nitrogen-doped diamondlike carbon thin-film layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-Y. Lee, Y.-L. Liu, Y. W. Kuen, M.-Y. Chen, and J.-Ch. Hwang, "Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid-crystal alignment," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Watanabe, T. Nakamo, T. Satoh, H. Hatoh, and Y. Onki, "Plasma-polymerized films as orientating layers for LCs," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, "Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, T. Sasaki, Y. Uehara, and S. Ushioda, "Pretilt angle of liquid crystals on polyimide films photo-aligned by single oblique angle irradiation with unpolarized light," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1

K. M. Song, S. J. Rho, H. J. Ahn, K. C. Kim, H. K. Baik, J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and S. J. Lee, "Post-growth irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by low-energy ion beam," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1577 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ahn, S. J. Rho, K. C. Kim, J. B. Kim, B. H. Hwang, C. J. Park, and H. K. Baik, "Ion-beam induced liquid-crystal alignment on diamond-like carbon and fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 4092 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2

J.-Y. Hwang, Y.-M. Jo, D.-S. Seo, and J. Jang, "Liquid-crystal alignment capability by the UV alignment method in a-C:H thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 42, L114B (2003).

Kolloid. Zh.

E. A. Konshina and V. A. Tolmachev, "Edge angles and the surface energy of layers of amorphous hydrogenerated carbon," Kolloid. Zh. 58, 491 (1996).

Kristallografiya

E. A. Konshina, "Interaction between a nematic liquid crystal and amorphous hydrocarbon orienting layers," Kristallografiya 40, 1074 (1995) [Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 999 (1995)].

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

A. I. Vangonen and E. A. Konshina, "ATR-IR spectroscopy study of NLC orientation at the plasma-polymerized layers surface," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Jo, J.-Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, S.-J. Rho, and H.-K. Baik, "Liquid-crystal aligning capabilities and eo characteristics of the TN-LCD with ion-beam exposure on a new diamond-like carbon thin film layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410, 319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, "Ion-beam alignment for liquid-crystal display fabrication," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk.

A. V. Baranov, Ya. S. Bobovich, E. A. Konshina, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Giant Raman scattering of hydrogenated films of amorphous carbon a-C : H," Opt. Spektrosk. 67, 456 (1989) [Opt. Spectrosc. 67, 267 (1989)].

Opt. Zh.

V. A. Tolmachev and E. A. Konshina, "Estimating the interaction energy at a solid–liquid-crystal interface," Opt. Zh. 65, (7), 39 (1998) [J. Opt. Technol. 65, 543 (1998)].

E. A. Konshina and A. I. Vangonen, "Study of the orientation of nematic thin films by the method of IR multiple frustrated-total-internal-reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Zh. 65, (7), 34 (1998) [J. Opt. Technol. 65, 539 (1998)].

E. A. Konshina, V. M. Tolmachev, A. I. Vangonen, and L. A. Fatkulina, "Study of the properties of plasma-polymerized layers and their effect on the orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Zh. 64, (5), 88 (1997) [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 476 (1997)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, "Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods," Opt. Zh. 73, (12), 9 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz.

E. A. Konshina and M. A. Fedorov, "Effect of boundary conditions on phase modulation of light in a nematic liquid crystal featuring the s-effect," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 32, (22), 15 (2006) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 32, 964 (2006)].

V. N. Vasil’ev, E. A. Konshina, D. S. Kostomarov, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and E. O. Gavrish, "Influence of the alignment layer and the liquid crystal layer thickness on the characteristics of electrically controlled optical modulators," Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 79, (11), 111 (2009) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 79, 498 (2009)].

Proc. SPIE

M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Influence of relief geometry on the surface of condensed layers on the alignment of LCs," Proc. SPIE 2731, 25 (1995).

E. A. Konshina, "Alignment of nematic LCs on the surface of amorphous hydrogenated carbon," Proc. SPIE 2731, 20 (1995).

Proc. SPIE.

E. A. Konshina, V. A. Tolmachiev, A. I. Vangonen, and A. P. Onokhov, "Novel alignment layers produced by CVD technique from hydrocarbon plasma," Proc. SPIE. 3015, 52 (1997).

Science

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothoman, and J. L. Speidell, "Liquid-crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order," Science 292, 2299 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

K. Y. Wu, J. Hwang, C.-Y. Lee, H.-C. Tang, Y.-L. Liu, C. H. Liu, H. K. Wei, and C. S. Kou, "Liquid-crystal alignment on the two-directionally processed substrates. Comparison of mechanical rubbing and plasma beam alignment," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, J. T. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. K. Baik, "Appropriate hydrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon film for application to liquid-crystal display," Thin Solid Films 517, 905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Usp. Khimii

E. S. Luk’yanchenko, V. A. Kozunov, and V. I. Grigos, "Orientation of nematic liquid crystals," Usp. Khimii 54, 214 (1985).

Zh. Fiz. Khimii

A. I. Vangonen, E. A. Konshina, and V. A. Tolmachev, "Adsorption properties of layers of materials that orient liquid crystals," Zh. Fiz. Khimii 71, 1102 (1997).

Zh. Tekh. Fiz.

E. A. Konshina and T. S. Turovskaya, "Study of the surface microstructure of thin a-C : H layers orienting liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 68, (1), 106 (1998) [Tech. Phys. 43, 97 (1998)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, N. L. Ivanova, and L. P. Amosova, "Anomalous light transmission by nematic liquid-crystal cells," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, (2), 39 (2008) [Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 61 (2008)].

M. V. Isaev, E. A. Konshina, A. P. Onokhov, and T. S. Turovskaya, "Effect of the surface structure of condensed layers on the orientation of liquid crystals," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 65, (10), 175 (1995) [Tech. Phys. 40, 1071 (1995)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, "Effect of surface on phase modulation of light in a nematic layer," Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, (2), 71 (2008) [Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

Other

H. Yasuda, Plasma Polymerization, Academic Press, New York, 1985, Mir, Moscow, 1988.

Y. Nakagawa, Y. Kato, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, K. Wako, S. Odahara, N. Toshifumi, J. Nakagaki, H. Nakano, P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, P. S. Andry, R. John, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. S. S. Purushothman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, and J. Stohr, "Novel LC alignment method using diamond-like carbon film and ion beam alignment," SID Symposium Digest of Technical, Vol. 32, 2001, p. 1346.

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