Abstract

This section of this review discusses the main features of methods for producing a new laser material--a ceramic for the development of powerful next-generation solid-state lasers. A laser ceramic with a perfect crystalline structure and containing no impurities is virtually identical to microcrystals of the same composition in its spectral and laser characteristics. The main methods of synthesizing precursors for a laser ceramic and examples of the technological implementation of these methods are considered.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (14)

R. Boulesteix, A. Maotre, J.-F. Baumard, C. Salle, and Y. Rabinovitch, “Mechanism of the liquid-phase sintering for Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, H. Gong, D. Tang, and O. K. Tan, “Synthesis and characterization of yttrium aluminum garnet by high-energy ball milling,” Opt. Mater. 31, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, J.-G. Li, Z. Xiu, D. Huo, and X. Sun, “Transparent Nd:YAG ceramics fabricated using nanosized c-alumina and yttria powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gong, D. Tang, H. Huang, and J. Ma, “Fabrication of yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics from yttria nanopowders synthesized by carbonate precipitation,” J. Electroceram. 23, 89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Librant, J. K. Jabczyński, H. Wȩglarz, A. Wajler, H. Tomaszewski, T. Łukasiewicz, W. Żendzian, and J. Kwiatkowski, “Preparation and characterization of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 17, 72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, “Fabrication of transparent yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic,” J. Physics: Conf. Ser. 152, 1 (2009).

D. Zhou, Y. Shi, P. Yun, and J. J. Xie, “Influence of precipitants on morphology and sinterability of Nd3+:Lu2O3 nanopowders by a wet chemical processing,” J. Alloys Compd. 479, 870 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bravo, L. Longuet, D. Autissier, J. F. Baumard, P. Vissie, and J. L. Longuet, “Influence of the powder preparation on the sintering of Yb-doped transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Ge, Y. Sun, C. Liu, and Wu Qi, “Influence of combustion reagent and microwave drying method characteristics of nano-sized Nd3+:YAG powders synthesized by the gel combustion method,” Gel Sci. Technol. 52, 179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Bagayev, V. V. Osipov, M. G. Ivanov, V. I. Solomonov, V. V. Platonov, A. N. Orlov, A. V. Rasuleva, and S. M. Vatnik, “Fabrication and characteristics of neodymium-activated yttrium oxide optical ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, S. N. Bagayev, V. V. Shemet, A. A. Komarov, O. V. Karban, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Development of Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser ceramics by high-pressure colloidal slip-casting (HPCSC) method,” Opt. Mater. 31, 707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Esposito and A. Piancastelli, “Role of powder properties and shaping techniques on the formation of pore-free YAG materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, and E. C. Dickey, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Serivalsatit, B. Yazgan Kokuoz, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, “Nanograined highly transparent yttria ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1033 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

Z. Chen, J. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Hu, “Fabrication of YAG transparent ceramics by two-step sintering,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, E. H. Jordan, and M. Gell, “Sol-gel combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline YAG powder from metal-organic precursors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 2759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Q. Yang, C. Dou, J. Xu, and H. Zhou, “Fabrication and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 30, 1583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, H. Kou, Y. Shi, and J. Guo, “Densification and microstructure evolution of Cr4+, Nd3+:YAG transparent ceramics for self-Q-switched laser,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, W. Liu, L. An, S. Wang, and J. Guo, “Solid-state-reaction fabrication and properties of a high-doping Nd:YAG transparent laser ceramic,” Front. Chem. Eng. China 2, 248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, W. Liu, L. Huang, and J. Guo, “Fabrication, microstructure and properties of highly transparent Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Maotre, C. Salle, R. Boulesteix, J.-F. Baumard, and Y. Rabinovitch, “Effect of silica on the reactive sintering of polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Yoda, S. Nakayama, and T. Kamimura, “Fabrication and laser performance of polycrystal and single crystal Nd:YAG by advanced ceramic processing,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Chang-qing, Z. Hong-bo, Z. Ming-fu, H. Jie-cai, and M. Song-he, “Fabrication of transparent YAG ceramics by traditional solid-state-reaction method,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 17, 148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, A. Komarov, Z. M. Lebedeva, and V. V. Shemet, “Nd:Y2O3 nanopowders for laser ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Hreniak, R. Fedyk, A. Bednarkiewicz, W. Strek, and W. Łojkowski, “Luminescence properties of Nd:YAG nanoceramics prepared by low-temperature high-pressure sintering method,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Fedyk, D. Hreniak, W. Łojkowski, W. Strȩk, H. Matysiak, E. Grzanka, S. Gierlotka, and P. Mazur, “Method of preparation and structural properties of transparent YAG nanoceramics,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Ivanov, A. S. Kaigorodov, V. R. Khrustov, V. V. Osipov, A. I. Medvedev, A. M. Murzakaev, and A. N. Orlov, “Properties of the translucent ceramics Nd:Y2O3 prepared by pulsed compaction and sintering of weakly aggregated nanopowders,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

G. Xu, X. Zhang, W. He, H. Liu, and H. Li, “The study of surfactant application on synthesis of YAG nanosized powders,” Powder Technol. 163, 202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Q. Li, J. Wang, and S. Yang, “Effect of process parameters on the synthesis of YAG nano-crystallites in supercritical solvent,” J. Alloys Compd. 421, 298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathur, H. Shen, and M. Veith, “Structural and optical properties of highly Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet ceramics from alkoxide and glycolate precursors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical properties of chromium-doped ceramic Y3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 29, 392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Jieqiang, X. Hongyan, W. Yong, and Y. Yunlong, “Effect of sulfate ions on YAG powders synthesized by microwave homogeneous precipitation,” J. Rare Earths 24, 284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Zárate, R. López, and E. A. Aguilar, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminum garnet by modifying the citrate precursor method,” Azo J. Mat. Online 1, 1 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bison, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “110-w ceramic Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Apetz and M. P. B. Van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: a light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86, 480 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Chung, J. Park, and S. Sim, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminum garnet powder by a citrate gel method,” J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 145 (2003).

H. M. Wang, M. C. Simmonds, Y. Z. Huang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Synthesis of nanosize powders and thin films of Yb-Doped YAG by sol-gel methods,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3474 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. B. Kong, J. Ma, and H. Huang, “Low-temperature formation of yttrium aluminum garnet from oxides via a high-energy ball-milling process,” Mater. Lett. 56, 344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid-state laser and optical materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Ramanathan, S. K. Roy, and Y. J. Bhat, “Transparent YAG from powder prepared by homogeneous precipitation reaction Al(NO3)3+Y(NO3)3+(NH4)2SO4+CO(NH2)2,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 20, 2119 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Li, T. Ikegami, J. Lee, T. Mori, and Y. Yajima, “Co-precipitation synthesis and sintering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) powders: the effect of precipitant,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 20, 2395 (2000).
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S.-M. Sim, K. Keller A., and T.-I. Mah, “Phase formation in yttrium aluminum garnet powders synthesized by chemical methods,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 713 (2000).
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1999 (1)

A. Ikesue and K. Yoshida, “Influence of pore volume on laser performance of Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 34, 1189 (1999).
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1997 (1)

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1517 (1997).
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1996 (1)

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, C. Tiseanu, S. Georgescu, C. Stoicescu, and P. Nanau, “High-resolution optical spectroscopy of Nd:YAG: a test for structural and distribution models,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 8 (1995).
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A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Sekita, H. Haneda, S. Shirasaki, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical spectra of undoped and rare-earth (Pr, Nd, Eu, and Er) doped transparent ceramic Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3709 (1991).
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1990 (1)

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1984 (2)

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1975 (1)

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1974 (1)

C. Greskovich and J. P. Chernoch, “Improved polycrystalline ceramic lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4495 (1974).
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1966 (1)

E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, “Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,” Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165 (1966).

1950 (1)

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M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

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S. Ramanathan, S. K. Roy, and Y. J. Bhat, “Transparent YAG from powder prepared by homogeneous precipitation reaction Al(NO3)3+Y(NO3)3+(NH4)2SO4+CO(NH2)2,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 20, 2119 (2001).
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J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bison, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “110-w ceramic Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 25 (2004).
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R. Boulesteix, A. Maotre, J.-F. Baumard, C. Salle, and Y. Rabinovitch, “Mechanism of the liquid-phase sintering for Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 711 (2009).
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A. Maotre, C. Salle, R. Boulesteix, J.-F. Baumard, and Y. Rabinovitch, “Effect of silica on the reactive sintering of polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 406 (2008).
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A. C. Bravo, L. Longuet, D. Autissier, J. F. Baumard, P. Vissie, and J. L. Longuet, “Influence of the powder preparation on the sintering of Yb-doped transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 734 (2009).
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E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, “Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,” Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165 (1966).

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L. Chang-qing, Z. Hong-bo, Z. Ming-fu, H. Jie-cai, and M. Song-he, “Fabrication of transparent YAG ceramics by traditional solid-state-reaction method,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 17, 148 (2007).
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D. Chen, E. H. Jordan, and M. Gell, “Sol-gel combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline YAG powder from metal-organic precursors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 2759 (2008).
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Z. Chen, J. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Hu, “Fabrication of YAG transparent ceramics by two-step sintering,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1709 (2008).
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C. Greskovich and J. P. Chernoch, “Improved polycrystalline ceramic lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4495 (1974).
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B. Chung, J. Park, and S. Sim, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminum garnet powder by a citrate gel method,” J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 145 (2003).

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Dickey, E. C.

S. Lee, E. R. Kupp, A. J. Stevenson, J. M. Anderson, G. L. Messing, X. Li, and E. C. Dickey, “Hot isostatic pressing of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1456 (2009).
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Dou, C.

X. Hu, Q. Yang, C. Dou, J. Xu, and H. Zhou, “Fabrication and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 30, 1583 (2008).
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L. Esposito and A. Piancastelli, “Role of powder properties and shaping techniques on the formation of pore-free YAG materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 317 (2009).
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R. Fedyk, D. Hreniak, W. Łojkowski, W. Strȩk, H. Matysiak, E. Grzanka, S. Gierlotka, and P. Mazur, “Method of preparation and structural properties of transparent YAG nanoceramics,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1252 (2007).
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D. Hreniak, R. Fedyk, A. Bednarkiewicz, W. Strek, and W. Łojkowski, “Luminescence properties of Nd:YAG nanoceramics prepared by low-temperature high-pressure sintering method,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1244 (2007).
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Fehrenbacher, L.

A. LaRoche, K. Rozenburg, J. Voyles, L. Fehrenbacher, and G. Gilde, “An economic comparison of hot pressing vs. pressureless sintering for transparent spinel armor,” in Advances in Ceramic Armor IV. A Collection of Papers Presented at the 32nd International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 27-February 1, 2008, Daytona Beach, Florida, ed. LisaProkurat Franks, Volume Editors Tatsuki Ohji and Andrew Wereszczak. A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, 2009, pp. 55-62.

Feng, Y.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bison, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “110-w ceramic Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 25 (2004).
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Gaffet, E.

E. Gaffet and G. Caer, “Mechanical processing for nanomaterials,” in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ed. H.S.Nalwa (American Scientific Publishers, Bristol and Philadelphia, 2004), vol. 5, pp. 91-129.

Gainutdinov, R. V.

M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

Ge, X.

X. Ge, Y. Sun, C. Liu, and Wu Qi, “Influence of combustion reagent and microwave drying method characteristics of nano-sized Nd3+:YAG powders synthesized by the gel combustion method,” Gel Sci. Technol. 52, 179 (2009).
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Gell, M.

D. Chen, E. H. Jordan, and M. Gell, “Sol-gel combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline YAG powder from metal-organic precursors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 2759 (2008).
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Georgescu, S.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, C. Tiseanu, S. Georgescu, C. Stoicescu, and P. Nanau, “High-resolution optical spectroscopy of Nd:YAG: a test for structural and distribution models,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 8 (1995).
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Gierlotka, S.

R. Fedyk, D. Hreniak, W. Łojkowski, W. Strȩk, H. Matysiak, E. Grzanka, S. Gierlotka, and P. Mazur, “Method of preparation and structural properties of transparent YAG nanoceramics,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1252 (2007).
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Gilde, G.

A. LaRoche, K. Rozenburg, J. Voyles, L. Fehrenbacher, and G. Gilde, “An economic comparison of hot pressing vs. pressureless sintering for transparent spinel armor,” in Advances in Ceramic Armor IV. A Collection of Papers Presented at the 32nd International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 27-February 1, 2008, Daytona Beach, Florida, ed. LisaProkurat Franks, Volume Editors Tatsuki Ohji and Andrew Wereszczak. A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, 2009, pp. 55-62.

Gong, H.

H. Gong, D. Tang, H. Huang, and J. Ma, “Fabrication of yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics from yttria nanopowders synthesized by carbonate precipitation,” J. Electroceram. 23, 89 (2009).
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H. Huang, H. Gong, D. Tang, and O. K. Tan, “Synthesis and characterization of yttrium aluminum garnet by high-energy ball milling,” Opt. Mater. 31, 716 (2009).
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Greskovich, C.

C. Greskovich and J. P. Chernoch, “Improved polycrystalline ceramic lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4495 (1974).
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R. Fedyk, D. Hreniak, W. Łojkowski, W. Strȩk, H. Matysiak, E. Grzanka, S. Gierlotka, and P. Mazur, “Method of preparation and structural properties of transparent YAG nanoceramics,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1252 (2007).
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Guo, J.

J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, W. Liu, L. An, S. Wang, and J. Guo, “Solid-state-reaction fabrication and properties of a high-doping Nd:YAG transparent laser ceramic,” Front. Chem. Eng. China 2, 248 (2008).
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J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, H. Kou, Y. Shi, and J. Guo, “Densification and microstructure evolution of Cr4+, Nd3+:YAG transparent ceramics for self-Q-switched laser,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1675 (2008).
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J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, W. Liu, L. Huang, and J. Guo, “Fabrication, microstructure and properties of highly transparent Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 6 (2008).
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M. Sekita, H. Haneda, S. Shirasaki, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical spectra of undoped and rare-earth (Pr, Nd, Eu, and Er) doped transparent ceramic Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3709 (1991).
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E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, “Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,” Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165 (1966).

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G. Xu, X. Zhang, W. He, H. Liu, and H. Li, “The study of surfactant application on synthesis of YAG nanosized powders,” Powder Technol. 163, 202 (2006).
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L. Chang-qing, Z. Hong-bo, Z. Ming-fu, H. Jie-cai, and M. Song-he, “Fabrication of transparent YAG ceramics by traditional solid-state-reaction method,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 17, 148 (2007).
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W. Jieqiang, X. Hongyan, W. Yong, and Y. Yunlong, “Effect of sulfate ions on YAG powders synthesized by microwave homogeneous precipitation,” J. Rare Earths 24, 284 (2006).
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R. Fedyk, D. Hreniak, W. Łojkowski, W. Strȩk, H. Matysiak, E. Grzanka, S. Gierlotka, and P. Mazur, “Method of preparation and structural properties of transparent YAG nanoceramics,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1252 (2007).
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D. Hreniak, R. Fedyk, A. Bednarkiewicz, W. Strek, and W. Łojkowski, “Luminescence properties of Nd:YAG nanoceramics prepared by low-temperature high-pressure sintering method,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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X. Hu, Q. Yang, C. Dou, J. Xu, and H. Zhou, “Fabrication and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 30, 1583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Z. Chen, J. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Hu, “Fabrication of YAG transparent ceramics by two-step sintering,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, H. Gong, D. Tang, and O. K. Tan, “Synthesis and characterization of yttrium aluminum garnet by high-energy ball milling,” Opt. Mater. 31, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gong, D. Tang, H. Huang, and J. Ma, “Fabrication of yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics from yttria nanopowders synthesized by carbonate precipitation,” J. Electroceram. 23, 89 (2009).
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L. B. Kong, J. Ma, and H. Huang, “Low-temperature formation of yttrium aluminum garnet from oxides via a high-energy ball-milling process,” Mater. Lett. 56, 344 (2002).
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J. Li, T. Ikegami, J. Lee, T. Mori, and Y. Yajima, “Co-precipitation synthesis and sintering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) powders: the effect of precipitant,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 20, 2395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Yoda, S. Nakayama, and T. Kamimura, “Fabrication and laser performance of polycrystal and single crystal Nd:YAG by advanced ceramic processing,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 397 (2006).
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A. Ikesue and K. Yoshida, “Influence of pore volume on laser performance of Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 34, 1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, and I. Yamaga, “Optical scattering centers in polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1927 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
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Ivanov, M. G.

S. N. Bagayev, V. V. Osipov, M. G. Ivanov, V. I. Solomonov, V. V. Platonov, A. N. Orlov, A. V. Rasuleva, and S. M. Vatnik, “Fabrication and characteristics of neodymium-activated yttrium oxide optical ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31, 740 (2009).
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L. Chang-qing, Z. Hong-bo, Z. Ming-fu, H. Jie-cai, and M. Song-he, “Fabrication of transparent YAG ceramics by traditional solid-state-reaction method,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 17, 148 (2007).
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Jieqiang, W.

W. Jieqiang, X. Hongyan, W. Yong, and Y. Yunlong, “Effect of sulfate ions on YAG powders synthesized by microwave homogeneous precipitation,” J. Rare Earths 24, 284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. Chen, E. H. Jordan, and M. Gell, “Sol-gel combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline YAG powder from metal-organic precursors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 2759 (2008).
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V. V. Ivanov, A. S. Kaigorodov, V. R. Khrustov, V. V. Osipov, A. I. Medvedev, A. M. Murzakaev, and A. N. Orlov, “Properties of the translucent ceramics Nd:Y2O3 prepared by pulsed compaction and sintering of weakly aggregated nanopowders,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33, 387 (2007).
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A. Ikesue and K. Kamata, “Microstructure and optical properties of hot isostatically pressed Nd:YAG ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1927 (1996).
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A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
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S. Mathur, H. Shen, and M. Veith, “Structural and optical properties of highly Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet ceramics from alkoxide and glycolate precursors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2027 (2006).
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H. M. Wang, M. C. Simmonds, Y. Z. Huang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Synthesis of nanosize powders and thin films of Yb-Doped YAG by sol-gel methods,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3474 (2003).
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J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, W. Liu, L. An, S. Wang, and J. Guo, “Solid-state-reaction fabrication and properties of a high-doping Nd:YAG transparent laser ceramic,” Front. Chem. Eng. China 2, 248 (2008).
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X. Li, J.-G. Li, Z. Xiu, D. Huo, and X. Sun, “Transparent Nd:YAG ceramics fabricated using nanosized c-alumina and yttria powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 241 (2009).
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H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical properties of chromium-doped ceramic Y3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 29, 392 (2006).
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J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bison, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “110-w ceramic Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 25 (2004).
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J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid-state laser and optical materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220 (2002).
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H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical properties of chromium-doped ceramic Y3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 29, 392 (2006).
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J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bison, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “110-w ceramic Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 25 (2004).
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J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid-state laser and optical materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220 (2002).
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M. Sekita, H. Haneda, S. Shirasaki, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical spectra of undoped and rare-earth (Pr, Nd, Eu, and Er) doped transparent ceramic Y3Al5O12,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3709 (1991).
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T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and M. Ichikawa, “Production of yttrium-aluminium-garnet fine powder,” Japanese Patent 10-101333 (1998).

Yang, Q.

X. Hu, Q. Yang, C. Dou, J. Xu, and H. Zhou, “Fabrication and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 30, 1583 (2008).
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X. Li, Q. Li, J. Wang, and S. Yang, “Effect of process parameters on the synthesis of YAG nano-crystallites in supercritical solvent,” J. Alloys Compd. 421, 298 (2006).
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Yoda, T.

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W. Jieqiang, X. Hongyan, W. Yong, and Y. Yunlong, “Effect of sulfate ions on YAG powders synthesized by microwave homogeneous precipitation,” J. Rare Earths 24, 284 (2006).
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M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

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J. Zárate, R. López, and E. A. Aguilar, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminum garnet by modifying the citrate precursor method,” Azo J. Mat. Online 1, 1 (2005).

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Z. Librant, J. K. Jabczyński, H. Wȩglarz, A. Wajler, H. Tomaszewski, T. Łukasiewicz, W. Żendzian, and J. Kwiatkowski, “Preparation and characterization of transparent Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 17, 72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

G. Xu, X. Zhang, W. He, H. Liu, and H. Li, “The study of surfactant application on synthesis of YAG nanosized powders,” Powder Technol. 163, 202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, Y. Shi, P. Yun, and J. J. Xie, “Influence of precipitants on morphology and sinterability of Nd3+:Lu2O3 nanopowders by a wet chemical processing,” J. Alloys Compd. 479, 870 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

X. Hu, Q. Yang, C. Dou, J. Xu, and H. Zhou, “Fabrication and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 30, 1583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, T. Kamimura, K. Yoshida, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bison, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “110-w ceramic Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azo J. Mat. Online (1)

J. Zárate, R. López, and E. A. Aguilar, “Synthesis of yttrium aluminum garnet by modifying the citrate precursor method,” Azo J. Mat. Online 1, 1 (2005).

Cer. Internat. (2)

Z. Chen, J. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Hu, “Fabrication of YAG transparent ceramics by two-step sintering,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, H. Kou, Y. Shi, and J. Guo, “Densification and microstructure evolution of Cr4+, Nd3+:YAG transparent ceramics for self-Q-switched laser,” Cer. Internat. 34, 1675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Trans. (1)

W. H. Rhodes, E. Q. Trickett, and D. J. Sordelet, “Key powder characteristics in sintered optical ceramics,” Ceram. Trans. 12, 677 (1990).

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. M. Wang, M. C. Simmonds, Y. Z. Huang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Synthesis of nanosize powders and thin films of Yb-Doped YAG by sol-gel methods,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3474 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk (1)

M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, “Model of pore healing in the process of producing optical ceramics,” Dok. Ross. Akad. Nauk 415, 322 (2007) M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gaĭnutdinov, R. M. Zakalyukin, and A. A. Kaminskiĭ, [Phys. Dokl. 52, 373 (2007)].

Front. Chem. Eng. China (1)

J. Li, Y. Wu, Y. Pan, W. Liu, L. An, S. Wang, and J. Guo, “Solid-state-reaction fabrication and properties of a high-doping Nd:YAG transparent laser ceramic,” Front. Chem. Eng. China 2, 248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

X. Ge, Y. Sun, C. Liu, and Wu Qi, “Influence of combustion reagent and microwave drying method characteristics of nano-sized Nd3+:YAG powders synthesized by the gel combustion method,” Gel Sci. Technol. 52, 179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glass Phys. Chem. (1)

V. V. Ivanov, A. S. Kaigorodov, V. R. Khrustov, V. V. Osipov, A. I. Medvedev, A. M. Murzakaev, and A. N. Orlov, “Properties of the translucent ceramics Nd:Y2O3 prepared by pulsed compaction and sintering of weakly aggregated nanopowders,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (3)

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