Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of the limiting attainable values of temperature sensitivity--the threshold value of the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of staring thermal viewers. Calculational formulas are obtained that take into account how the sensitivity is affected by photon noise, the capacitance of the signal accumulator, and the spatial inhomogeneity of the staring-array response. The limiting NETD values are quantitatively determined for the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength windows of transparency of the atmosphere, along with the conditions under which they can be achieved.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Miroshnikov, “Infrared technology in Russia,” Opt. Zh. No. 12, 18 (1992) M. M. Miroshnikov[J. Opt. Technol. 59, 767 (1992)].
  5. M. M. Miroshnikov, E. N. Mineev, and A. F. Fedorovskiĭ, Physics and Engineering Principles of High-Sensitivity Thermal Viewers (TsNII Informatsii, Moscow, 1973).
  6. V. V. Tarasov and Yu. G. Yakushenkov, Staring-Type Systems (Logos, Moscow, 2004).
  7. M. M. Miroshnikov, Theoretical Principles of Optoelectronic Devices (Mashinostronie, Leningrad, 1983).
  8. V. P. Ivanov, Modelling and Evaluating Modern Thermal Viewers (Otechestvo, Kazan, 2006).
  9. G. Sarusi, “Choosing detectors for third-generation infrared systems,” Proc. SPIE 4820, 919 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Dahlberg and S. Johansson, “QWIP sensors in military applications,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. I. Taubkin and M. A. Trishenkov, “Limiting sensitivity values of thermal viewers and artificial-vision information systems,” Prikl. Fiz. No. 6, 48 (2001).
  13. J.M.Lloyd, ed., Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum Press, 1975; Mir, Moscow, 1978).
  14. R. D. Hudson, Jr., Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1969; Mir, Moscow, 1972).
  15. G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968; Mir, Moscow, 1968), pp. 127-128.
  16. P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, and F. Pistone, “Key performance drivers for cooler large IR staring arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 173 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).
  19. V. A. Markin, “The sensitivity threshold of IR devices based on array photodetectors,” Opt. Zh. 72, No. 11, 51 (2005) V. A. Markin[J. Opt. Technol. 72, 849 (2005)].

2005

V. A. Markin, “The sensitivity threshold of IR devices based on array photodetectors,” Opt. Zh. 72, No. 11, 51 (2005) V. A. Markin[J. Opt. Technol. 72, 849 (2005)].

V. A. Markin, “The sensitivity threshold of IR devices based on array photodetectors,” Opt. Zh. 72, No. 11, 51 (2005) V. A. Markin[J. Opt. Technol. 72, 849 (2005)].

2003

G. Sarusi, “Choosing detectors for third-generation infrared systems,” Proc. SPIE 4820, 919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, and F. Pistone, “Key performance drivers for cooler large IR staring arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. I. Taubkin and M. A. Trishenkov, “Limiting sensitivity values of thermal viewers and artificial-vision information systems,” Prikl. Fiz. No. 6, 48 (2001).

2000

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlberg and S. Johansson, “QWIP sensors in military applications,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. M. Miroshnikov, “Infrared technology in Russia,” Opt. Zh. No. 12, 18 (1992) M. M. Miroshnikov[J. Opt. Technol. 59, 767 (1992)].

M. M. Miroshnikov, “Infrared technology in Russia,” Opt. Zh. No. 12, 18 (1992) M. M. Miroshnikov[J. Opt. Technol. 59, 767 (1992)].

1988

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).

Breiter, R.

R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cabanski, W.

R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chatard, J. P.

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chorier, P.

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, and F. Pistone, “Key performance drivers for cooler large IR staring arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Costa, P.

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahlberg, A.

A. Dahlberg and S. Johansson, “QWIP sensors in military applications,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fedorovskii, A. F.

M. M. Miroshnikov, E. N. Mineev, and A. F. Fedorovskiĭ, Physics and Engineering Principles of High-Sensitivity Thermal Viewers (TsNII Informatsii, Moscow, 1973).

Fick, W.

R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gridley, J.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).

Horn, S.

P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Howard, J. G.

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, R. D.

R. D. Hudson, Jr., Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1969; Mir, Moscow, 1972).

Ivanov, V. P.

V. P. Ivanov, Modelling and Evaluating Modern Thermal Viewers (Otechestvo, Kazan, 2006).

Johansson, S.

A. Dahlberg and S. Johansson, “QWIP sensors in military applications,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G. A.

G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968; Mir, Moscow, 1968), pp. 127-128.

Korn, T. M.

G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968; Mir, Moscow, 1968), pp. 127-128.

Kruer, M. R.

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).

Manissadjian, A. A.

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Markin, V. A.

V. A. Markin, “The sensitivity threshold of IR devices based on array photodetectors,” Opt. Zh. 72, No. 11, 51 (2005) V. A. Markin[J. Opt. Technol. 72, 849 (2005)].

V. A. Markin, “The sensitivity threshold of IR devices based on array photodetectors,” Opt. Zh. 72, No. 11, 51 (2005) V. A. Markin[J. Opt. Technol. 72, 849 (2005)].

Mauk, K. H.

R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mineev, E. N.

M. M. Miroshnikov, E. N. Mineev, and A. F. Fedorovskiĭ, Physics and Engineering Principles of High-Sensitivity Thermal Viewers (TsNII Informatsii, Moscow, 1973).

Miroshnikov, M. M.

M. M. Miroshnikov, “Infrared technology in Russia,” Opt. Zh. No. 12, 18 (1992) M. M. Miroshnikov[J. Opt. Technol. 59, 767 (1992)].

M. M. Miroshnikov, “Infrared technology in Russia,” Opt. Zh. No. 12, 18 (1992) M. M. Miroshnikov[J. Opt. Technol. 59, 767 (1992)].

M. M. Miroshnikov, E. N. Mineev, and A. F. Fedorovskiĭ, Physics and Engineering Principles of High-Sensitivity Thermal Viewers (TsNII Informatsii, Moscow, 1973).

M. M. Miroshnikov, Theoretical Principles of Optoelectronic Devices (Mashinostronie, Leningrad, 1983).

Norton, P.

P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pistone, F.

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, and F. Pistone, “Key performance drivers for cooler large IR staring arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reago, D.

P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarkady, K.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).

Sarusi, G.

G. Sarusi, “Choosing detectors for third-generation infrared systems,” Proc. SPIE 4820, 919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuler, J. M.

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scribner, D. A.

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).

Tarasov, V. V.

V. V. Tarasov and Yu. G. Yakushenkov, Staring-Type Systems (Logos, Moscow, 2004).

Taubkin, I. I.

I. I. Taubkin and M. A. Trishenkov, “Limiting sensitivity values of thermal viewers and artificial-vision information systems,” Prikl. Fiz. No. 6, 48 (2001).

Tribolet, P.

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, and F. Pistone, “Key performance drivers for cooler large IR staring arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trishenkov, M. A.

I. I. Taubkin and M. A. Trishenkov, “Limiting sensitivity values of thermal viewers and artificial-vision information systems,” Prikl. Fiz. No. 6, 48 (2001).

Vollmerhausen, R.

D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Warren, P.

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yakushenkov, Yu. G.

V. V. Tarasov and Yu. G. Yakushenkov, Staring-Type Systems (Logos, Moscow, 2004).

Opt. Zh.

M. M. Miroshnikov, “Infrared technology in Russia,” Opt. Zh. No. 12, 18 (1992) M. M. Miroshnikov[J. Opt. Technol. 59, 767 (1992)].

V. A. Markin, “The sensitivity threshold of IR devices based on array photodetectors,” Opt. Zh. 72, No. 11, 51 (2005) V. A. Markin[J. Opt. Technol. 72, 849 (2005)].

Prikl. Fiz.

I. I. Taubkin and M. A. Trishenkov, “Limiting sensitivity values of thermal viewers and artificial-vision information systems,” Prikl. Fiz. No. 6, 48 (2001).

Proc. SPIE

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, and F. Pistone, “Key performance drivers for cooler large IR staring arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Breiter, W. Cabanski, W. Fick, and K. H. Mauk, “High-performance nonuniformity correction hard- and software for FPA modules at AIM,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, and J. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 930, 56 (1988).

D. A. Scribner, J. M. Schuler, P. Warren, J. G. Howard, and M. R. Kruer, “Image preprocessing for infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Norton, J. Campbell, S. Horn, and D. Reago, “Third-generation infrared imagers,” Proc. SPIE 4130, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Reago, S. Horn, J. Campbell, and R. Vollmerhausen, “Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Sarusi, “Choosing detectors for third-generation infrared systems,” Proc. SPIE 4820, 919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tribolet, P. Chorier, A. A. Manissadjian, P. Costa, and J. P. Chatard, “High performance infrared detectors at Sofradir,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlberg and S. Johansson, “QWIP sensors in military applications,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. M. Miroshnikov, E. N. Mineev, and A. F. Fedorovskiĭ, Physics and Engineering Principles of High-Sensitivity Thermal Viewers (TsNII Informatsii, Moscow, 1973).

V. V. Tarasov and Yu. G. Yakushenkov, Staring-Type Systems (Logos, Moscow, 2004).

M. M. Miroshnikov, Theoretical Principles of Optoelectronic Devices (Mashinostronie, Leningrad, 1983).

V. P. Ivanov, Modelling and Evaluating Modern Thermal Viewers (Otechestvo, Kazan, 2006).

J.M.Lloyd, ed., Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum Press, 1975; Mir, Moscow, 1978).

R. D. Hudson, Jr., Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1969; Mir, Moscow, 1972).

G. A. Korn and T. M. Korn, Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968; Mir, Moscow, 1968), pp. 127-128.

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