Abstract

Plastic deformation of germanium crystals by compression along the ⟨111⟩ symmetry direction results in birefringence for light propagating in any direction. The crystal in this case breaks up into regions several millimeters across, with varying orientation of the index ellipsoid and the birefringence.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. E. Popov, V. A. Starenchenko, and S. N. Kolupaeva, “Instabilities of the plastic deformation of crystals and formation of dislocation defect structures,” Matem. Model. Sist. Prots. No. 3, 76 (1995).
  2. G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).
  3. H. Alexandr, “Plastic deformation of germanium single crystals,” Z. Metallkd. 52, 344 (1961).
  4. K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).
  5. Y. W. Zhang, T. C. Wang, and N. G. Liang, “The inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in ductile single crystals,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1171 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).
  7. E. N. Makolkina, “The influence of high-temperature heat processing on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Nauch. Tekh. Vestnik Sankt Pet. Univ. Info. Tekh. Mekh. Opt. No. 18, 198 (2005).
  8. E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 2, 73 (2007) E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 135 (2007)].
  9. E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on interband and intraband transitions in germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 11, 7 (2007) E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 726 (2007)].
  10. A. K. Walton and C. R. Everett, “Free-carrier piezoabsorption in n-type germanium,” Solid State Commun. 5, 275 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Urusovskaya, “Mechanical properties of crystals,” chap. 2 of Modern Crystallography, vol. 4 of Physical Properties of Crystals (Nauka, Moscow, 1981), pp. 47-152.
  12. J. R. Patel and B. H. Alexander, “Plastic deformation of germanium in compression,” Acta Metall. 4, 385 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Kojlma and K. Sumino, “Development of dislocation structure and slip band distribution in germanium crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, No. 1, 171 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962; Mir, Moscow, 1965).

2007 (2)

E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 2, 73 (2007) E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 135 (2007)].

E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on interband and intraband transitions in germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 11, 7 (2007) E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 726 (2007)].

2003 (1)

G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).

1994 (1)

Y. W. Zhang, T. C. Wang, and N. G. Liang, “The inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in ductile single crystals,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. Kojlma and K. Sumino, “Development of dislocation structure and slip band distribution in germanium crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, No. 1, 171 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. K. Walton and C. R. Everett, “Free-carrier piezoabsorption in n-type germanium,” Solid State Commun. 5, 275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

H. Alexandr, “Plastic deformation of germanium single crystals,” Z. Metallkd. 52, 344 (1961).

1956 (1)

J. R. Patel and B. H. Alexander, “Plastic deformation of germanium in compression,” Acta Metall. 4, 385 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Adrianova, L. K.

I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).

Afanas'ev, I. I.

I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).

Alexander, B. H.

J. R. Patel and B. H. Alexander, “Plastic deformation of germanium in compression,” Acta Metall. 4, 385 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Alexandr, H.

H. Alexandr, “Plastic deformation of germanium single crystals,” Z. Metallkd. 52, 344 (1961).

Cailletaud, G.

G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).

Diard, O.

G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).

Dupas, C.

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

Everett, C. R.

A. K. Walton and C. R. Everett, “Free-carrier piezoabsorption in n-type germanium,” Solid State Commun. 5, 275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Feyel, F.

G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).

Forest, S.

G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).

Ignatenkov, B. A.

I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).

Kojlma, K.

K. Kojlma and K. Sumino, “Development of dislocation structure and slip band distribution in germanium crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, No. 1, 171 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kolupaeva, S. N.

L. E. Popov, V. A. Starenchenko, and S. N. Kolupaeva, “Instabilities of the plastic deformation of crystals and formation of dislocation defect structures,” Matem. Model. Sist. Prots. No. 3, 76 (1995).

Krum, T.

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

Liang, N. G.

Y. W. Zhang, T. C. Wang, and N. G. Liang, “The inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in ductile single crystals,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Makolkina, E. N.

E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 2, 73 (2007) E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 135 (2007)].

E. N. Makolkina, “The influence of high-temperature heat processing on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Nauch. Tekh. Vestnik Sankt Pet. Univ. Info. Tekh. Mekh. Opt. No. 18, 198 (2005).

Martin, J. L.

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

Nyilas, K.

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

Patel, J. R.

J. R. Patel and B. H. Alexander, “Plastic deformation of germanium in compression,” Acta Metall. 4, 385 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Popov, L. E.

L. E. Popov, V. A. Starenchenko, and S. N. Kolupaeva, “Instabilities of the plastic deformation of crystals and formation of dislocation defect structures,” Matem. Model. Sist. Prots. No. 3, 76 (1995).

Przhevuskii, A. K.

E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 2, 73 (2007) E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 135 (2007)].

E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on interband and intraband transitions in germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 11, 7 (2007) E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 726 (2007)].

Roshak, E. N.

E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on interband and intraband transitions in germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 11, 7 (2007) E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 726 (2007)].

Ryzhikov, É. N.

I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).

Shirshnev, P. S.

E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on interband and intraband transitions in germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 11, 7 (2007) E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 726 (2007)].

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962; Mir, Moscow, 1965).

Starenchenko, V. A.

L. E. Popov, V. A. Starenchenko, and S. N. Kolupaeva, “Instabilities of the plastic deformation of crystals and formation of dislocation defect structures,” Matem. Model. Sist. Prots. No. 3, 76 (1995).

Sumino, K.

K. Kojlma and K. Sumino, “Development of dislocation structure and slip band distribution in germanium crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, No. 1, 171 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ungár, T.

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

Urusovskaya, A. A.

A. A. Urusovskaya, “Mechanical properties of crystals,” chap. 2 of Modern Crystallography, vol. 4 of Physical Properties of Crystals (Nauka, Moscow, 1981), pp. 47-152.

Vetrov, V. N.

I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).

Walton, A. K.

A. K. Walton and C. R. Everett, “Free-carrier piezoabsorption in n-type germanium,” Solid State Commun. 5, 275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

Y. W. Zhang, T. C. Wang, and N. G. Liang, “The inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in ductile single crystals,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. W.

Y. W. Zhang, T. C. Wang, and N. G. Liang, “The inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in ductile single crystals,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zsoldos, L.

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

Acta Metall. (1)

J. R. Patel and B. H. Alexander, “Plastic deformation of germanium in compression,” Acta Metall. 4, 385 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Kojlma and K. Sumino, “Development of dislocation structure and slip band distribution in germanium crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, No. 1, 171 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

Y. W. Zhang, T. C. Wang, and N. G. Liang, “The inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in ductile single crystals,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Zh. (2)

E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 2, 73 (2007) E. N. Makolkina and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 135 (2007)].

E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ, “The effect of plastic strain on interband and intraband transitions in germanium crystals,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 11, 7 (2007) E. N. Roshak, P. S. Shirshnev, and A. K. Przhevuskiĭ,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 726 (2007)].

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. K. Walton and C. R. Everett, “Free-carrier piezoabsorption in n-type germanium,” Solid State Commun. 5, 275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Technische Mech. (1)

G. Cailletaud, O. Diard, F. Feyel, and S. Forest, “Computational Crystal Plasticity: From single crystal to homogenized polycrystals,” Technische Mech. 23, No. 2, 130 (2003).

Z. Metallkd. (1)

H. Alexandr, “Plastic deformation of germanium single crystals,” Z. Metallkd. 52, 344 (1961).

Other (6)

K. Nyilas, C. Dupas, T. Krum, L. Zsoldos, T. Ungár, and J. L. Martin, “Dislocation structure and mechanical behavior of Ge single crystals deformed by compression,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A25 (2004).

I. I. Afanas'ev, V. N. Vetrov, B. A. Ignatenkov, É. N. Ryzhikov, and L. K. Adrianova, “Method of obtaining optical lenses,” Russian Federation Patent 1 773 956 (1993).

E. N. Makolkina, “The influence of high-temperature heat processing on the absorption spectrum of germanium crystals,” Nauch. Tekh. Vestnik Sankt Pet. Univ. Info. Tekh. Mekh. Opt. No. 18, 198 (2005).

A. A. Urusovskaya, “Mechanical properties of crystals,” chap. 2 of Modern Crystallography, vol. 4 of Physical Properties of Crystals (Nauka, Moscow, 1981), pp. 47-152.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962; Mir, Moscow, 1965).

L. E. Popov, V. A. Starenchenko, and S. N. Kolupaeva, “Instabilities of the plastic deformation of crystals and formation of dislocation defect structures,” Matem. Model. Sist. Prots. No. 3, 76 (1995).

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