Abstract

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the degradation of a series-produced optical coating made from lead fluoride on a substrate made from IKS-25 chalcogenide glass after the combined action of high-speed fluxes of solid microparticles (carbon-containing microparticles of size 0.1-200μm, with a speed of 0.1-30km/sec and a flux density of up to 10<sup>4</sup>cm<sup>−2</sup>sec<sup>−1</sup>), a relaxing plasma (with a concentration of atoms and ions of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and their compounds of about 10<sup>14</sup>−10<sup>17</sup>cm<sup>−3</sup>, a flux density of up to 10<sup>23</sup>cm<sup>−2</sup>sec<sup>−1</sup>, and a flux speed up to 10km/sec), short-wavelength radiation (with an exposure of 0.1J/cm<sup>2</sup> in the vacuum UV region of wavelengths 90-180nm and 1.2J/cm<sup>2</sup> in the UV region with wavelengths 180-400nm) under vacuum conditions (with pumping to 10<sup>−7</sup>-10<sup>−5</sup>Torr) accompanying thermal cycling (in the temperature range −20to+160°C). An estimate is given of the possibility of using the described methods to physically model the action on optical materials of the main harmful factors in low near-earth orbits.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. A. Barbashev, M. I. Dushin, and Yu. N. Ivonin, “Results of tests of polymeric materials after exposure under conditions of open space,” in Space Technology and Material Science (Nauka, Moscow, 1982).
  2. A. I. Akishin and L. S. Novikov, Methods of Simulating the Action of the Environment on Spacecraft Materials, part 1 (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1986).
  3. I. A. Zabelina, “The influence of outer space on optical devices,” Opt. Zh. 64, No. 7, 3 (1997) I. A. Zabelina [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 613 (1997)].
  4. V. A. Kuznetsov, ed., Reliability and Efficiency in Engineering: A Handbook, vol. 10 of Handbook Data on Operating Conditions and Reliability Characteristics (Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1990), pp. 160-193.
  5. G. I. Andersen, F. A. Zaitov, and T. M. Panevin, Features of the Action of Ionizing Radiation and Light on the Characteristics of Infrared Photodetectors. Questions of Estimating the Stability of Electronic Apparatus Against the Action of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Ionizing Radiation from Outer Space (Moscow, 1988).
  6. M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].
  7. E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).
  8. E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna, “Experimental study of the kinetics of the B2Σ+ state of radicals of cyan CN in the jet of an orifice discharge at the de-excitation stage,” Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 60 (1995) E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna [Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 51 (1995)].
  9. E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Method of obtaining a flux of microparticles and a device for accomplishing it,” Russian Patent 2220518 (2003).
  10. E. V. Kalashnikov, “Emission and conductivity of a plasma jet of an orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 339 (1995).
  11. E. V. Kalashnikov, “Radial pressure distribution in the plasma jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 34, 501 (1996).
  12. M. F. Danilov and E. V. Kalashnikov, “Components of the shell of a plasma jet of a stopped-down discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 663 (1995).
  13. E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Radiation-induced damage in calcium fluoride ionic crystals exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 77, No. 5, 69 (2007) E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik [Tech. Phys. Lett. 77, 604 (2007)].
  14. V. I. Nefedov and V. T. Cherepin, Physical Methods of Studying the Surface of Solids (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).
  15. V. I. Nefedov, X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Chemical Compounds (Khimiya, Moscow, 1984).

2007

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Radiation-induced damage in calcium fluoride ionic crystals exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 77, No. 5, 69 (2007) E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik [Tech. Phys. Lett. 77, 604 (2007)].

2005

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

1997

I. A. Zabelina, “The influence of outer space on optical devices,” Opt. Zh. 64, No. 7, 3 (1997) I. A. Zabelina [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 613 (1997)].

1996

E. V. Kalashnikov, “Radial pressure distribution in the plasma jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 34, 501 (1996).

1995

M. F. Danilov and E. V. Kalashnikov, “Components of the shell of a plasma jet of a stopped-down discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 663 (1995).

E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna, “Experimental study of the kinetics of the B2Σ+ state of radicals of cyan CN in the jet of an orifice discharge at the de-excitation stage,” Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 60 (1995) E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna [Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 51 (1995)].

E. V. Kalashnikov, “Emission and conductivity of a plasma jet of an orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 339 (1995).

Akishin, A. I.

A. I. Akishin and L. S. Novikov, Methods of Simulating the Action of the Environment on Spacecraft Materials, part 1 (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1986).

Andersen, G. I.

G. I. Andersen, F. A. Zaitov, and T. M. Panevin, Features of the Action of Ionizing Radiation and Light on the Characteristics of Infrared Photodetectors. Questions of Estimating the Stability of Electronic Apparatus Against the Action of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Ionizing Radiation from Outer Space (Moscow, 1988).

Barbashev, E. A.

E. A. Barbashev, M. I. Dushin, and Yu. N. Ivonin, “Results of tests of polymeric materials after exposure under conditions of open space,” in Space Technology and Material Science (Nauka, Moscow, 1982).

Bedrin, A. G.

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

Cherepin, V. T.

V. I. Nefedov and V. T. Cherepin, Physical Methods of Studying the Surface of Solids (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).

Danilov, M. F.

M. F. Danilov and E. V. Kalashnikov, “Components of the shell of a plasma jet of a stopped-down discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 663 (1995).

Dushin, M. I.

E. A. Barbashev, M. I. Dushin, and Yu. N. Ivonin, “Results of tests of polymeric materials after exposure under conditions of open space,” in Space Technology and Material Science (Nauka, Moscow, 1982).

Él'ts, V. K.

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

Gerasyuk, A. K.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Goev, A. I.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Ivonin, Yu. N.

E. A. Barbashev, M. I. Dushin, and Yu. N. Ivonin, “Results of tests of polymeric materials after exposure under conditions of open space,” in Space Technology and Material Science (Nauka, Moscow, 1982).

Kalashnikov, E. V.

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Radiation-induced damage in calcium fluoride ionic crystals exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 77, No. 5, 69 (2007) E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik [Tech. Phys. Lett. 77, 604 (2007)].

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

E. V. Kalashnikov, “Radial pressure distribution in the plasma jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 34, 501 (1996).

E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna, “Experimental study of the kinetics of the B2Σ+ state of radicals of cyan CN in the jet of an orifice discharge at the de-excitation stage,” Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 60 (1995) E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna [Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 51 (1995)].

M. F. Danilov and E. V. Kalashnikov, “Components of the shell of a plasma jet of a stopped-down discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 663 (1995).

E. V. Kalashnikov, “Emission and conductivity of a plasma jet of an orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 339 (1995).

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Method of obtaining a flux of microparticles and a device for accomplishing it,” Russian Patent 2220518 (2003).

Kirilenko, V. V.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Kostitsyna, T. G.

E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna, “Experimental study of the kinetics of the B2Σ+ state of radicals of cyan CN in the jet of an orifice discharge at the de-excitation stage,” Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 60 (1995) E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna [Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 51 (1995)].

Kuznetsov, V. A.

V. A. Kuznetsov, ed., Reliability and Efficiency in Engineering: A Handbook, vol. 10 of Handbook Data on Operating Conditions and Reliability Characteristics (Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1990), pp. 160-193.

Nefedov, V. I.

V. I. Nefedov, X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Chemical Compounds (Khimiya, Moscow, 1984).

V. I. Nefedov and V. T. Cherepin, Physical Methods of Studying the Surface of Solids (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).

Novikov, L. S.

A. I. Akishin and L. S. Novikov, Methods of Simulating the Action of the Environment on Spacecraft Materials, part 1 (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1986).

Nozdrachev, A. V.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Panevin, T. M.

G. I. Andersen, F. A. Zaitov, and T. M. Panevin, Features of the Action of Ionizing Radiation and Light on the Characteristics of Infrared Photodetectors. Questions of Estimating the Stability of Electronic Apparatus Against the Action of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Ionizing Radiation from Outer Space (Moscow, 1988).

Potelov, V. V.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Rachkulik, S. N.

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Radiation-induced damage in calcium fluoride ionic crystals exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 77, No. 5, 69 (2007) E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik [Tech. Phys. Lett. 77, 604 (2007)].

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Method of obtaining a flux of microparticles and a device for accomplishing it,” Russian Patent 2220518 (2003).

Senik, B. N.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Sukhachev, A. B.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Vasil'ev, M. F.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

Zabelina, I. A.

I. A. Zabelina, “The influence of outer space on optical devices,” Opt. Zh. 64, No. 7, 3 (1997) I. A. Zabelina [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 613 (1997)].

Zaitov, F. A.

G. I. Andersen, F. A. Zaitov, and T. M. Panevin, Features of the Action of Ionizing Radiation and Light on the Characteristics of Infrared Photodetectors. Questions of Estimating the Stability of Electronic Apparatus Against the Action of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Ionizing Radiation from Outer Space (Moscow, 1988).

Zhilin, A. N.

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

Opt. Spektrosk.

E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna, “Experimental study of the kinetics of the B2Σ+ state of radicals of cyan CN in the jet of an orifice discharge at the de-excitation stage,” Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 60 (1995) E. V. Kalashnikov and T. G. Kostitsyna [Opt. Spektrosk. 78, 51 (1995)].

Opt. Zh.

M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev, “Using new film-forming materials--gadolinium zirconate and lutetium zirconate--to obtain high-quality optical coatings,” Opt. Zh. 74, No. 10, 79 (2007) M. F. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gerasyuk, A. I. Goev, V. V. Kirilenko, A. V. Nozdrachev, V. V. Potelov, B. N. Senik, and A. B. Sukhachev [J. Opt. Technol. 74, 712 (2007)].

I. A. Zabelina, “The influence of outer space on optical devices,” Opt. Zh. 64, No. 7, 3 (1997) I. A. Zabelina [J. Opt. Technol. 64, 613 (1997)].

Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz.

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Radiation-induced damage in calcium fluoride ionic crystals exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 77, No. 5, 69 (2007) E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik [Tech. Phys. Lett. 77, 604 (2007)].

Teplofiz. Vys. Temp.

E. V. Kalashnikov, “Emission and conductivity of a plasma jet of an orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 339 (1995).

E. V. Kalashnikov, “Radial pressure distribution in the plasma jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 34, 501 (1996).

M. F. Danilov and E. V. Kalashnikov, “Components of the shell of a plasma jet of a stopped-down discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 33, 663 (1995).

E. V. Kalashnikov, A. G. Bedrin, S. N. Rachkulik, A. N. Zhilin, and V. K. Él'ts, “Vacuum UV emission spectra of an erosion plasma of a jet of a high-power orifice discharge in vacuum,” Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 43, 32 (2005).

Other

E. V. Kalashnikov and S. N. Rachkulik, “Method of obtaining a flux of microparticles and a device for accomplishing it,” Russian Patent 2220518 (2003).

V. A. Kuznetsov, ed., Reliability and Efficiency in Engineering: A Handbook, vol. 10 of Handbook Data on Operating Conditions and Reliability Characteristics (Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1990), pp. 160-193.

G. I. Andersen, F. A. Zaitov, and T. M. Panevin, Features of the Action of Ionizing Radiation and Light on the Characteristics of Infrared Photodetectors. Questions of Estimating the Stability of Electronic Apparatus Against the Action of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Radiation, and Ionizing Radiation from Outer Space (Moscow, 1988).

E. A. Barbashev, M. I. Dushin, and Yu. N. Ivonin, “Results of tests of polymeric materials after exposure under conditions of open space,” in Space Technology and Material Science (Nauka, Moscow, 1982).

A. I. Akishin and L. S. Novikov, Methods of Simulating the Action of the Environment on Spacecraft Materials, part 1 (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1986).

V. I. Nefedov and V. T. Cherepin, Physical Methods of Studying the Surface of Solids (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).

V. I. Nefedov, X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Chemical Compounds (Khimiya, Moscow, 1984).

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