Abstract

This paper experimentally investigates the dynamic characteristics of electrically controlled modulators based on liquid crystals (LCs) in the visible and near-IR regions and the effect of the electric-field parameters on them, along with the variation of the conditions of the interphase interaction of the LCs with the orienting surface. It is shown that it is effective to use a dual-frequency liquid crystal for phase and amplitude modulation of radiation with wavelength 1.55μm. In an LC modulator operating on the S effect, a 2π phase lag is obtained in a time of 2ms. The switching times can be reduced to the microsecond range when the twist effect is used and the LC layer is about 7μm thick by increasing the voltage from 30to50V.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].
  3. Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Hyang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. K. Kirby and G. D. Love, “Fast, large and controllable phase modulation using dual-frequency liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 1470 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].
  7. E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].
  8. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].
  9. M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].
  12. N. A. Riza and S. A. Khan, “Liquid-crystal-deflector based variable fiber-optic attenuator,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3449 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast-switching dual-frequency liquid-crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude- and frequency-modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

2007

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].

E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].

2006

Y. Hyang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

2005

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast-switching dual-frequency liquid-crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude- and frequency-modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amosova, L. P.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Brimicombe, P. D.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elston, S. J.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, M. A.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Feng, W.

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golovin, A. B.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast-switching dual-frequency liquid-crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude- and frequency-modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hyang, T.

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hyang, Y.

Y. Hyang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Isaev, M. V.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Ishii, Y.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, N. L.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Khan, S. A.

Kirby, A. K.

Konshina, E. A.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].

E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Kostomarov, D. S.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].

E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov, “Phase modulation of light in a two-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Zh. No. 10, 88 (2007) E. A. Konshina and D. S. Kostomarov,[J. Opt. Technol. 74, 720 (2007)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Lavrentovich, O. D.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast-switching dual-frequency liquid-crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude- and frequency-modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lia, J.

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

Love, G. D.

Lu, Y.-Q.

Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, C.

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizusaki, M.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizushima, S.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parry-Jones, L. A.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raynes, E. P.

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

Rybnikova, A. E.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast-switching dual-frequency liquid-crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude- and frequency-modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voronin, Yu. M.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

Wen, C.-H.

Y. Hyang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Y. Hyang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Wu, X. Liang, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Du, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator with a polymer-stabilized dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast-switching dual-frequency liquid-crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude- and frequency-modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3864 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hyang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021103-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y.-H. Wu, F. Du, and S.-T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014904-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Brimicombe, L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, and E. P. Raynes, “Modeling of dual-frequency liquid-crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 104104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Zh.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova, “Determining the director tilt and phase lag of liquid-crystal cells by optical methods,” Opt. Zh. 73, No. 12, 9 (2006) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, and L. P. Amosova,[J. Opt. Technol. 73, 830 (2006)].

Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Optical-transmission decay dynamics in dual-frequency nematic liquid-crystal cells,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 34, No. 9, 87 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov[Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 401 (2008)].

Proc. SPIE

C. Mao, M. Xu, W. Feng, T. Hyang, K. Wu, and J. Lia, “Liquid-crystal applications in optical telecommunication,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Tekh. Fiz.

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin, “Effect of the surface on the phase modulation of light in a layer of nematic liquid crystal,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 78, No. 2, 71 (2008) E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, L. P. Amosova, and Yu. M. Voronin,[Tech. Phys. 53, 211 (2008)].

Other

E. A. Konshina, M. A. Fedorov, A. E. Rybnikova, L. P. Amosova, N. L. Ivanova, M. V. Isaev, and D. S. Kostomarov, “Dynamics of the twist effect in a dual-frequency nematic,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (2008) [in press].

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