Abstract

This paper presents experimental results and an analysis of methods of generating terahertz (THz) radiation, using femtosecond laser sources: generation by photoconductive semiconductor antennas, nonlinear-optical generation of the difference frequency or optical rectification, and generation using optical breakdown in gases under the action of femtosecond pulses. An undoped semiconductor crystal of indium arsenide (InAs) located in a magnetic field, an electrooptic ZnTe crystal, an organic DAST crystal, and an optical spark in air were used as generators of THz radiation

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 301 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Newnham and P. F. Taday, “Pulsed terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 394 (2008).
  4. M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).
  7. V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].
  8. N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).
  10. Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).
  11. A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Gunter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.
  15. P. K. Benicewicz, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Scaling of terahertz radiation from large-aperture biased photoconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2533 (1994).
  16. A. M. Zheltikov, “Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176, 623 (2006) A. M. Zheltikov,[Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006)].

2008 (2)

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).

D. A. Newnham and P. F. Taday, “Pulsed terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 394 (2008).

2007 (2)

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zheltikov, “Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176, 623 (2006) A. M. Zheltikov,[Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006)].

A. M. Zheltikov, “Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176, 623 (2006) A. M. Zheltikov,[Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006)].

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Gunter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

2000 (2)

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

1998 (1)

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1975 (1)

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Bartal, B.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).

Benicewicz, P. K.

Bespalov, V. G.

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eden, S.

Glownia, J. H.

K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.

Gunter, P.

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hoffmann, M. C.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).

Iwai, T.

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Izumida, S.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khan, R. U. A.

Khin Yap, Y.

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Kim, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Kress, M.

Krylov, V. N.

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Liu, Z.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Mori, Y.

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Neis, M.

Nelson, K. A.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).

Newnham, D. A.

Ohtake, H.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Putilin, S. É.

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Reimann, K.

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. P.

Rodriguez, G.

K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.

Roskos, H. G.

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Ruiz, B.

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Schneider, A.

Stasel'ko, D. I.

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Stillhart, M.

Taday, P. F.

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Taylor, A.

K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 6 (2008).

Yellampalle, B.

K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.

Yoshimura, M.

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Zhang, X. C.

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. M. Zheltikov, “Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176, 623 (2006) A. M. Zheltikov,[Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006)].

A. M. Zheltikov, “Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176, 623 (2006) A. M. Zheltikov,[Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006)].

Appl. Phys. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. 68, 1085 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Xu, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser-induced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Mori, Y. Takahashi, T. Iwai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Khin Yap, and T. Sasaki, “Slope nucleation method for the growth of high-quality 4-dimethylamino-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1006 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko, “Generating radiation in the far-IR region with femtosecond optical excitation of the semiconductor InAs in a magnetic field,” Opt. Spektrosk. 93, 158 (2002) V. G. Bespalov, V. N. Krylov, S. É. Putilin, and D. I. Stasel'ko,[Opt. Spectrosc. 93, 148 (2002)].

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Usp. Fiz. Nauk (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, “Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176, 623 (2006) A. M. Zheltikov,[Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006)].

Other (1)

K.-Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, J. H. Glownia, A. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Intense coherent terahertz radiation from two-color photocurrent mixing in atmospheric air,” Optical Terahertz Science and Technology. OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD7.

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