Abstract

In connection with the upcoming International Polar Year (2007-8) a network of high-sensitivity optical devices will be operating in the Arctic to record and monitor weak luminescence in the upper atmosphere, mainly the auroras and night-sky luminescence. The need to compare the data of the optical measurements at different points requires high accuracy of their intercalibration in terms of international standards. This article gives a review of mathematical methods for processing the data of photometers with a small field of view and describes the experimental apparatus (located at Svalbard University on Spitsbergen) for their absolute calibration. The university's specialized optical laboratory is described, and the results of the certification and monitoring of the brightness of secondary standards of the calibration lamps used to calibrate the optical devices are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).
  2. Per-Even Sandholt, H. C. Carlson, and Alv Egeland, "Dayside and polar cusp aurora," (Kluwer, Dordreht, 2002).
  3. J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy. A Tutorial, vol. 2.0, pp. 1-56 (Instruments SA Inc., Jobin-Yvon, 1988).
  4. V. I. Salin, "Error of the calculational method for calibrating photometers of scattered solar radiation in energetic values," in Transactions of the Second International Conference on Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols, 9/27-10/1, 1999, St. Petersburg, pp. 166-170.
  5. V. V. Kudryavtsev, "Technique for determining the calibration characteristics of photometers," Izmerit. Tekh. No. 9, 26 (1986).
  6. J. H. Lambert, "Photometria, sive de mensura et gradibus luminis colorum et umbrae. Augsburg, 1760," German trans. by E. Anding in Ostwald's Klassiker d. Exacten Wissenschaften (Engelmann, Leipzig, 1892), p. 324.
  7. "Oriel Instruments, Instruction Manual, Quartz tungsten halogen lamp standards of spectral irradiance: 1kW, 200W, 45W, 63350-M," p. 6, Stratford, Connecticut 06497-0872, USA, 1996.
  8. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic Press, New York, 1961), pp. 569-573.
  9. D. Baker and G. Romick, "The rayleigh: interpretation of the unit in terms of column emission rate or apparent radiance expressed in SI units," Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).
  10. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).
  11. J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).
  12. J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUM irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134 (2005).

2005 (1)

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUM irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134 (2005).

2002 (2)

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Per-Even Sandholt, H. C. Carlson, and Alv Egeland, "Dayside and polar cusp aurora," (Kluwer, Dordreht, 2002).

1996 (1)

"Oriel Instruments, Instruction Manual, Quartz tungsten halogen lamp standards of spectral irradiance: 1kW, 200W, 45W, 63350-M," p. 6, Stratford, Connecticut 06497-0872, USA, 1996.

1991 (2)

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

1988 (1)

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy. A Tutorial, vol. 2.0, pp. 1-56 (Instruments SA Inc., Jobin-Yvon, 1988).

1986 (1)

V. V. Kudryavtsev, "Technique for determining the calibration characteristics of photometers," Izmerit. Tekh. No. 9, 26 (1986).

1976 (1)

D. Baker and G. Romick, "The rayleigh: interpretation of the unit in terms of column emission rate or apparent radiance expressed in SI units," Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).

1961 (1)

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic Press, New York, 1961), pp. 569-573.

1892 (1)

J. H. Lambert, "Photometria, sive de mensura et gradibus luminis colorum et umbrae. Augsburg, 1760," German trans. by E. Anding in Ostwald's Klassiker d. Exacten Wissenschaften (Engelmann, Leipzig, 1892), p. 324.

Avakyan, S. V.

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

Bais, A. F.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Baker, D.

D. Baker and G. Romick, "The rayleigh: interpretation of the unit in terms of column emission rate or apparent radiance expressed in SI units," Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).

Blumthaler, M.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Cabot, T.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Carlson, H. C.

Per-Even Sandholt, H. C. Carlson, and Alv Egeland, "Dayside and polar cusp aurora," (Kluwer, Dordreht, 2002).

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic Press, New York, 1961), pp. 569-573.

Egeland, Alv

Per-Even Sandholt, H. C. Carlson, and Alv Egeland, "Dayside and polar cusp aurora," (Kluwer, Dordreht, 2002).

Evlashin, L. S.

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

Gröbner, J.

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUM irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134 (2005).

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

Josefsson, W.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Koskela, T.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Kovalenok, V. V.

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

Kudryavtsev, V. V.

V. V. Kudryavtsev, "Technique for determining the calibration characteristics of photometers," Izmerit. Tekh. No. 9, 26 (1986).

Lambert, J. H.

J. H. Lambert, "Photometria, sive de mensura et gradibus luminis colorum et umbrae. Augsburg, 1760," German trans. by E. Anding in Ostwald's Klassiker d. Exacten Wissenschaften (Engelmann, Leipzig, 1892), p. 324.

Lazarev, A. I.

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

Lerner, J. M.

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy. A Tutorial, vol. 2.0, pp. 1-56 (Instruments SA Inc., Jobin-Yvon, 1988).

Mielenz, K. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

Rembges, D.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Romick, G.

D. Baker and G. Romick, "The rayleigh: interpretation of the unit in terms of column emission rate or apparent radiance expressed in SI units," Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).

Salin, V. I.

V. I. Salin, "Error of the calculational method for calibrating photometers of scattered solar radiation in energetic values," in Transactions of the Second International Conference on Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols, 9/27-10/1, 1999, St. Petersburg, pp. 166-170.

Sandholt, Per-Even

Per-Even Sandholt, H. C. Carlson, and Alv Egeland, "Dayside and polar cusp aurora," (Kluwer, Dordreht, 2002).

Saunders, R. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

Sperfeld, P.

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUM irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134 (2005).

Thevenon, A.

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy. A Tutorial, vol. 2.0, pp. 1-56 (Instruments SA Inc., Jobin-Yvon, 1988).

Thorseth, T. M.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Titov, V. G.

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

Webb, A. R.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Wester, U.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

D. Baker and G. Romick, "The rayleigh: interpretation of the unit in terms of column emission rate or apparent radiance expressed in SI units," Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, and U. Wester, "Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories," Appl. Opt. 41, 4278 (2002).

Izmerit. Tekh. No. (1)

V. V. Kudryavtsev, "Technique for determining the calibration characteristics of photometers," Izmerit. Tekh. No. 9, 26 (1986).

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, "Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by National Laboratories," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

Metrologia (1)

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUM irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134 (2005).

Other (7)

J. H. Lambert, "Photometria, sive de mensura et gradibus luminis colorum et umbrae. Augsburg, 1760," German trans. by E. Anding in Ostwald's Klassiker d. Exacten Wissenschaften (Engelmann, Leipzig, 1892), p. 324.

"Oriel Instruments, Instruction Manual, Quartz tungsten halogen lamp standards of spectral irradiance: 1kW, 200W, 45W, 63350-M," p. 6, Stratford, Connecticut 06497-0872, USA, 1996.

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic Press, New York, 1961), pp. 569-573.

S. V. Avakyan, L. S. Evlashin, V. V. Kovalenok, A. I. Lazarev, and V. G. Titov, Observation of the Auroras from Space (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991).

Per-Even Sandholt, H. C. Carlson, and Alv Egeland, "Dayside and polar cusp aurora," (Kluwer, Dordreht, 2002).

J. M. Lerner and A. Thevenon, The Optics of Spectroscopy. A Tutorial, vol. 2.0, pp. 1-56 (Instruments SA Inc., Jobin-Yvon, 1988).

V. I. Salin, "Error of the calculational method for calibrating photometers of scattered solar radiation in energetic values," in Transactions of the Second International Conference on Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols, 9/27-10/1, 1999, St. Petersburg, pp. 166-170.

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