This paper shows that the observed long-term cyclic variation of the sun's radiation is caused by the corresponding changes of the radius and its effective surface temperature. The main tasks and goals are formulated for project Astrometriya, developed on the service module of the Russian segment of the ISS and intended for the investigation of these fundamental problems. The optomechanical and thermophysical characteristics of the measurement-research complex of the SL-200 solar limbograph are presented. The planned space studies are also capable of explaining and predicting many important processes that occur on earth.

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