This paper discusses a complex of navigational-measurement and observational devices for manned space ships (MSSs), space stations (SSs), and the Buran reusable space system. The problems that arise in creating visual optical devices (VODs) are analyzed. The main technical requirements on the portholes and the glazing of the helmets of space suits as a component of VODs are considered. In order to solve the problems of the MSS control system at various stages of the planned flight to Mars, the prospects are discussed of using simple, self-contained, and reliable VODs that provide psychological comfort to the operator under conditions of prolonged space flight.
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