Abstract

Spectroscopic and tomographic studies on the solid tissues of a human tooth have been carried out in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. It is experimentally shown that, in samples of dental tissue damaged by caries, the absorption lines of water in the THz region have higher intensity by comparison with the intensity of healthy tissue. The radiation intensity in the THz frequency range reflected from samples of human dental enamel damaged by caries in this case is smaller by a factor of 2.2 and from samples of dentine is smaller by a factor of 4.5 by comparison with samples of healthy tissue.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. B.  Hu, M. C.  Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X.-C.  Zhang, J.  Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer Science + Business Media, New York, 2010).
  3. D.  Arnone, C.  Ciesla, P.  Michael, “Terahertz imaging comes into view,” Phys. World 4, 35 (2000).
  4. V. P.  Wallace, A. J.  Fitzgerald, S.  Shankar, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424 (2004).
  5. A. G.  Markelz, A.  Roitberg, E. J.  Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0  THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D.  Polley, A.  Patra, R. K.  Mitra, “Dielectric relaxation of the extended hydration sheath of DNA in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 586, 143 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. M.  Mittleman, R. H.  Jacobsen, M. C.  Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).
  9. D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).
  10. Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).
  11. M.  Schwerdtfeger, S.  Lippert, M.  Koch, A.  Berg, S.  Katletz, K.  Wiesauer, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing of dental composites,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2842 (2012).
  12. C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).
  13. D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.  Schirmer, M.  Fujio, M.  Minami, J.  Miura, T.  Araki, T.  Yasui, “Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 354 (2010).
  15. E.  Pickwell, V. P.  Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39, No. 17, R301 (2006).
  16. M.  Addy, G.  Embery, W.  Edgar, R.  Orchardson, Tooth Wear and Sensitivity (Martin Dunitz Ltd., 2000).
  17. A.  Milosevic, P.  Young, M.  Lennon, “The prevalence of tooth wear in 14-year-old school children in Liverpool,” Community Dent. Health 11, 83 (1993).
  18. A.  Millward, L.  Shaw, A.  Smith, “Continuous intra-oral pH monitoring after consumption of acidic beverages,” J. Dent. Res.73, abstract no. 389 (1994).
  19. M. S.  Kulya, Ya. V.  Grachev, V. G.  Bespalov, “Obtaining topograms using a pulsed terahertz refractometer,” Nanosist. Fiz. Khim. Mat. 3, No. 5, 33 (2012).
  20. D. M.  Mittleman, S.  Hunsche, L.  Boivin, M. C.  Nuss, “T-ray tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

D.  Polley, A.  Patra, R. K.  Mitra, “Dielectric relaxation of the extended hydration sheath of DNA in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 586, 143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. S.  Kulya, Ya. V.  Grachev, V. G.  Bespalov, “Obtaining topograms using a pulsed terahertz refractometer,” Nanosist. Fiz. Khim. Mat. 3, No. 5, 33 (2012).

M.  Schwerdtfeger, S.  Lippert, M.  Koch, A.  Berg, S.  Katletz, K.  Wiesauer, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing of dental composites,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2842 (2012).

2011 (1)

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

E.  Pickwell, V. P.  Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39, No. 17, R301 (2006).

2004 (1)

V. P.  Wallace, A. J.  Fitzgerald, S.  Shankar, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424 (2004).

2003 (3)

R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

D.  Arnone, C.  Ciesla, P.  Michael, “Terahertz imaging comes into view,” Phys. World 4, 35 (2000).

A. G.  Markelz, A.  Roitberg, E. J.  Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0  THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. M.  Mittleman, R. H.  Jacobsen, M. C.  Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

A.  Milosevic, P.  Young, M.  Lennon, “The prevalence of tooth wear in 14-year-old school children in Liverpool,” Community Dent. Health 11, 83 (1993).

Addy, M.

M.  Addy, G.  Embery, W.  Edgar, R.  Orchardson, Tooth Wear and Sensitivity (Martin Dunitz Ltd., 2000).

Araki, T.

Arnone, D.

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.  Arnone, C.  Ciesla, P.  Michael, “Terahertz imaging comes into view,” Phys. World 4, 35 (2000).

Arnone, D. D.

R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Bajwa, N.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Berg, A.

Bespalov, V. G.

M. S.  Kulya, Ya. V.  Grachev, V. G.  Bespalov, “Obtaining topograms using a pulsed terahertz refractometer,” Nanosist. Fiz. Khim. Mat. 3, No. 5, 33 (2012).

Boivin, L.

Brown, E. R.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Ciesla, C.

D.  Arnone, C.  Ciesla, P.  Michael, “Terahertz imaging comes into view,” Phys. World 4, 35 (2000).

Ciesla, C. M.

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Cole, B.

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

Corchia, A.

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Crawley, D.

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crawley, D. A.

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Edgar, W.

M.  Addy, G.  Embery, W.  Edgar, R.  Orchardson, Tooth Wear and Sensitivity (Martin Dunitz Ltd., 2000).

Embery, G.

M.  Addy, G.  Embery, W.  Edgar, R.  Orchardson, Tooth Wear and Sensitivity (Martin Dunitz Ltd., 2000).

Fitzgerald, A. J.

V. P.  Wallace, A. J.  Fitzgerald, S.  Shankar, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424 (2004).

Fujio, M.

Grachev, Ya. V.

M. S.  Kulya, Ya. V.  Grachev, V. G.  Bespalov, “Obtaining topograms using a pulsed terahertz refractometer,” Nanosist. Fiz. Khim. Mat. 3, No. 5, 33 (2012).

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G.  Markelz, A.  Roitberg, E. J.  Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0  THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hubschman, J.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Hunsche, S.

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M.  Mittleman, R. H.  Jacobsen, M. C.  Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).

Katletz, S.

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Koch, M.

Kulya, M. S.

M. S.  Kulya, Ya. V.  Grachev, V. G.  Bespalov, “Obtaining topograms using a pulsed terahertz refractometer,” Nanosist. Fiz. Khim. Mat. 3, No. 5, 33 (2012).

Lee, H.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Lennon, M.

A.  Milosevic, P.  Young, M.  Lennon, “The prevalence of tooth wear in 14-year-old school children in Liverpool,” Community Dent. Health 11, 83 (1993).

Linfield, E. H.

R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Lippert, S.

Longbottom, C.

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Markelz, A. G.

A. G.  Markelz, A.  Roitberg, E. J.  Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0  THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michael, P.

D.  Arnone, C.  Ciesla, P.  Michael, “Terahertz imaging comes into view,” Phys. World 4, 35 (2000).

Millward, A.

A.  Millward, L.  Shaw, A.  Smith, “Continuous intra-oral pH monitoring after consumption of acidic beverages,” J. Dent. Res.73, abstract no. 389 (1994).

Milosevic, A.

A.  Milosevic, P.  Young, M.  Lennon, “The prevalence of tooth wear in 14-year-old school children in Liverpool,” Community Dent. Health 11, 83 (1993).

Minami, M.

Mitra, R. K.

D.  Polley, A.  Patra, R. K.  Mitra, “Dielectric relaxation of the extended hydration sheath of DNA in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 586, 143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M.  Mittleman, S.  Hunsche, L.  Boivin, M. C.  Nuss, “T-ray tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M.  Mittleman, R. H.  Jacobsen, M. C.  Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679 (1996).

Miura, J.

Nuss, M. C.

Orchardson, R.

M.  Addy, G.  Embery, W.  Edgar, R.  Orchardson, Tooth Wear and Sensitivity (Martin Dunitz Ltd., 2000).

Patra, A.

D.  Polley, A.  Patra, R. K.  Mitra, “Dielectric relaxation of the extended hydration sheath of DNA in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 586, 143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M.  Ciesla, D. D.  Arnone, A.  Corchia, D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 73 (2000).

Pickwell, E.

E.  Pickwell, V. P.  Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39, No. 17, R301 (2006).

Polley, D.

D.  Polley, A.  Patra, R. K.  Mitra, “Dielectric relaxation of the extended hydration sheath of DNA in the THz frequency region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 586, 143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Roitberg, A.

A. G.  Markelz, A.  Roitberg, E. J.  Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0  THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, M.

Schwerdtfeger, M.

Shankar, S.

V. P.  Wallace, A. J.  Fitzgerald, S.  Shankar, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424 (2004).

Shaw, L.

A.  Millward, L.  Shaw, A.  Smith, “Continuous intra-oral pH monitoring after consumption of acidic beverages,” J. Dent. Res.73, abstract no. 389 (1994).

Singh, R. S.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Smith, A.

A.  Millward, L.  Shaw, A.  Smith, “Continuous intra-oral pH monitoring after consumption of acidic beverages,” J. Dent. Res.73, abstract no. 389 (1994).

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Tewari, P.

Z. D.  Taylor, R. S.  Singh, D. B.  Bennett, P.  Tewari, C. P.  Kealey, N.  Bajwa, M. O.  Culjat, A.  Stojadinovic, H.  Lee, J.  Hubschman, E. R.  Brown, W. S.  Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Wallace, V. P.

E.  Pickwell, V. P.  Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39, No. 17, R301 (2006).

V. P.  Wallace, A. J.  Fitzgerald, S.  Shankar, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424 (2004).

R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, V. P.  Wallace, B.  Cole, D.  Arnone, M.  Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

Wiesauer, K.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M.  Woodward, V. P.  Wallace, D. D.  Arnone, E. H.  Linfield, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X.-C.  Zhang, J.  Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer Science + Business Media, New York, 2010).

Yasui, T.

Young, P.

A.  Milosevic, P.  Young, M.  Lennon, “The prevalence of tooth wear in 14-year-old school children in Liverpool,” Community Dent. Health 11, 83 (1993).

Zhang, X.-C.

X.-C.  Zhang, J.  Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer Science + Business Media, New York, 2010).

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P.  Wallace, A. J.  Fitzgerald, S.  Shankar, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424 (2004).

Caries Res. (1)

D. A.  Crawley, C.  Longbottom, B. E.  Cole, C. M.  Ciesla, D.  Arnone, V. P.  Wallace, M.  Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352 (2003).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

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