Abstract

This paper discusses the spectral features of the amplification of narrow-band radiation of atomic nitrogen in the excimeric media of inert gases, including helium, argon, krypton, and xenon. Appreciable short-wavelength shifts (up to 0.026 nm) are detected in the spectra of the amplified radiation relative to the atomic emission lines of nitrogen that initiate this radiation. The observed shifts exceeded the instrumental resolution of the spectrometer that we used, were determined by the composition of the amplifying medium, and were independent of its excitation parameters under the experimental conditions. An explanation of the observed effect is proposed.

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  1. D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).
  2. G. N. Makarov, “The spectroscopy of clusters by intense pulses of VUV radiation from free-electron lasers,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 179, 487 (2009). [Phys. Usp. 52, 461 (2009)].
  3. F. G. Houtermans, “Über Massen-Wirkung im optischen Spektralgebiet und die Möglichkeit absolut negativ Absorption für einige Fälle von Molekülspektren (Licht-Lawine),” Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 933 (1960).
  4. N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].
  5. I. N. Knyazev and V. S. Letokhov, Gas Lasers in the UV and VUV Spectral Regions: Handbook on Lasers (Izd. Sov. Radio, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 197–220.
  6. G. Gerasimov, “Excimer media gain,” Spectrosc. Lett. 34, 191 (2001).
  7. G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].
  8. G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].
  9. I. J. Bigio and M. Slatkine, “Attainment of the theoretical minimum input power for injection locking of an unstable-resonator Kr–F laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, No. 6, 336 (1981).
  10. N. P. Barnes and J. C. Barnes, “Injection seeding 1: theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2670 (1993).
  11. E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).
  12. S. A. Magnitskii, V. I. Malachova, A. P. Tarasevich, V. G. Tunkin, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Generation of bandwidth-limited tunable picosecond pulses by injection-locked optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 11, 18 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  13. A. R. Striganov and N. S. Sventitski?, Tables of the Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1966).
  14. G. N. Zvereva, “Investigation and optimization of VUV sources based on inert-gas plasmas,” in Author’s Abstract of Dissertation for Doctor of Physicomathematical Sciences (Izd. LEMA, St. Petersburg, 2010).
  15. T. Eftimiopoulos, B. P. Stoicheff, and R. I. Thompson, “Efficient population inversion in excimer states by supersonic expansion of discharge plasmas,” Opt. Lett. 14, 624 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  16. N. S. Krylov and V. A. Fok, “On the two main interpretations of the energy–time uncertainty relationship,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 17, 93 (1947).
  17. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum Press, New York, 1995).
  18. S. É. Frish, Optical Spectra of Atoms (Fiz. Mat. Giz, Moscow, 1963).
  19. B. M. Smirnov and A. S. Yatsenko, Dimers (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1997).
  20. P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).
  21. S. L. Guberman and W. A. Goddard, “Nature of excited states of He2,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1203 (1975).
  22. J. M. Parson, P. E. Siska, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed-beam differential elastic scattering measurements. IV. Ar + Ar,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1511 (1972).
  23. K. K. Docken and T. P. Schafer, “Spectroscopic information on ground-state Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2 from interatomic potentials,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 16, 454 (1973).
  24. Y. Tanaka and K. Yoshino, “Absorption spectrum of the He2 molecule in the 510–611-? range,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3087 (1969).
  25. J. D. Macomber, The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions: Illustrated by Magnetic Resonance and Laser Effects (Wiley, New York, 1976; Mir, Moscow, 1976).
  26. V. A. Fok, Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976).

2009

G. N. Makarov, “The spectroscopy of clusters by intense pulses of VUV radiation from free-electron lasers,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 179, 487 (2009). [Phys. Usp. 52, 461 (2009)].

2006

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].

2002

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

2001

G. Gerasimov, “Excimer media gain,” Spectrosc. Lett. 34, 191 (2001).

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).

1993

N. P. Barnes and J. C. Barnes, “Injection seeding 1: theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2670 (1993).

1989

1986

1981

I. J. Bigio and M. Slatkine, “Attainment of the theoretical minimum input power for injection locking of an unstable-resonator Kr–F laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, No. 6, 336 (1981).

1977

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

1975

S. L. Guberman and W. A. Goddard, “Nature of excited states of He2,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1203 (1975).

1973

K. K. Docken and T. P. Schafer, “Spectroscopic information on ground-state Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2 from interatomic potentials,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 16, 454 (1973).

1972

J. M. Parson, P. E. Siska, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed-beam differential elastic scattering measurements. IV. Ar + Ar,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1511 (1972).

1971

P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).

1970

N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].

1969

Y. Tanaka and K. Yoshino, “Absorption spectrum of the He2 molecule in the 510–611-? range,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3087 (1969).

1960

F. G. Houtermans, “Über Massen-Wirkung im optischen Spektralgebiet und die Möglichkeit absolut negativ Absorption für einige Fälle von Molekülspektren (Licht-Lawine),” Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 933 (1960).

1947

N. S. Krylov and V. A. Fok, “On the two main interpretations of the energy–time uncertainty relationship,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 17, 93 (1947).

Arnesen, A.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

Avrutin, E. A.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).

Barnes, J. C.

N. P. Barnes and J. C. Barnes, “Injection seeding 1: theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2670 (1993).

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes and J. C. Barnes, “Injection seeding 1: theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2670 (1993).

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].

Bigio, I. J.

I. J. Bigio and M. Slatkine, “Attainment of the theoretical minimum input power for injection locking of an unstable-resonator Kr–F laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, No. 6, 336 (1981).

Birkin, D. J. L.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).

Danilychev, V. A.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].

Deacon, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Docken, K. K.

K. K. Docken and T. P. Schafer, “Spectroscopic information on ground-state Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2 from interatomic potentials,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 16, 454 (1973).

Eftimiopoulos, T.

Elias, L. R.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Fok, V. A.

N. S. Krylov and V. A. Fok, “On the two main interpretations of the energy–time uncertainty relationship,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 17, 93 (1947).

V. A. Fok, Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976).

Frish, S. É.

S. É. Frish, Optical Spectra of Atoms (Fiz. Mat. Giz, Moscow, 1963).

Gerasimov, G.

G. Gerasimov, “Excimer media gain,” Spectrosc. Lett. 34, 191 (2001).

Gerasimov, G. N.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

Goddard, W. A.

S. L. Guberman and W. A. Goddard, “Nature of excited states of He2,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1203 (1975).

Guberman, S. L.

S. L. Guberman and W. A. Goddard, “Nature of excited states of He2,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1203 (1975).

Hallin, R.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

Heijkenskjold, F.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

Houtermans, F. G.

F. G. Houtermans, “Über Massen-Wirkung im optischen Spektralgebiet und die Möglichkeit absolut negativ Absorption für einige Fälle von Molekülspektren (Licht-Lawine),” Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 933 (1960).

Khodkevich, D. D.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].

Knyazev, I. N.

I. N. Knyazev and V. S. Letokhov, Gas Lasers in the UV and VUV Spectral Regions: Handbook on Lasers (Izd. Sov. Radio, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 197–220.

Krylov, B. E.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

Krylov, N. S.

N. S. Krylov and V. A. Fok, “On the two main interpretations of the energy–time uncertainty relationship,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 17, 93 (1947).

Lee, Y. T.

J. M. Parson, P. E. Siska, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed-beam differential elastic scattering measurements. IV. Ar + Ar,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1511 (1972).

P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).

Letokhov, V. S.

I. N. Knyazev and V. S. Letokhov, Gas Lasers in the UV and VUV Spectral Regions: Handbook on Lasers (Izd. Sov. Radio, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 197–220.

Macomber, J. D.

J. D. Macomber, The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions: Illustrated by Magnetic Resonance and Laser Effects (Wiley, New York, 1976; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

Madey, J. M. J.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Magnitskii, S. A.

Makarov, G. N.

G. N. Makarov, “The spectroscopy of clusters by intense pulses of VUV radiation from free-electron lasers,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 179, 487 (2009). [Phys. Usp. 52, 461 (2009)].

Malachova, V. I.

Morozov, A. O.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

Parson, J. M.

J. M. Parson, P. E. Siska, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed-beam differential elastic scattering measurements. IV. Ar + Ar,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1511 (1972).

P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).

Popov, Yu. M.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).

Ramian, G. J.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Schafer, T. P.

K. K. Docken and T. P. Schafer, “Spectroscopic information on ground-state Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2 from interatomic potentials,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 16, 454 (1973).

P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).

Schwettman, H. A.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).

Siska, P. E.

J. M. Parson, P. E. Siska, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed-beam differential elastic scattering measurements. IV. Ar + Ar,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1511 (1972).

P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).

Slatkine, M.

I. J. Bigio and M. Slatkine, “Attainment of the theoretical minimum input power for injection locking of an unstable-resonator Kr–F laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, No. 6, 336 (1981).

Smirnov, B. M.

B. M. Smirnov and A. S. Yatsenko, Dimers (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1997).

Smith, T. I.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Stoicheff, B. P.

Striganov, A. R.

A. R. Striganov and N. S. Sventitski?, Tables of the Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1966).

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum Press, New York, 1995).

Sventitskii, N. S.

A. R. Striganov and N. S. Sventitski?, Tables of the Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1966).

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka and K. Yoshino, “Absorption spectrum of the He2 molecule in the 510–611-? range,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3087 (1969).

Tarasevich, A. P.

Thompson, R. I.

Tunkin, V. G.

Yakubovich, S. D.

Yatsenko, A. S.

B. M. Smirnov and A. S. Yatsenko, Dimers (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1997).

Yoshino, K.

Y. Tanaka and K. Yoshino, “Absorption spectrum of the He2 molecule in the 510–611-? range,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3087 (1969).

Zvereva, G. N.

G. N. Zvereva, “Investigation and optimization of VUV sources based on inert-gas plasmas,” in Author’s Abstract of Dissertation for Doctor of Physicomathematical Sciences (Izd. LEMA, St. Petersburg, 2010).

Helv. Phys. Acta

F. G. Houtermans, “Über Massen-Wirkung im optischen Spektralgebiet und die Möglichkeit absolut negativ Absorption für einige Fälle von Molekülspektren (Licht-Lawine),” Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 933 (1960).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. P. Barnes and J. C. Barnes, “Injection seeding 1: theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2670 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. U. Rafailov, D. J. L. Birkin, W. Sibbett, and E. A. Avrutin, “Nonresonant self-injection seeding of a gain-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 287 (2001).

J. Chem. Phys.

P. E. Siska, J. M. Parson, T. P. Schafer, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed beam differential elastic scattering measurements. III. He+He and Ne+Ne,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5762 (1971).

J. M. Parson, P. E. Siska, and Y. T. Lee, “Intermolecular potentials from crossed-beam differential elastic scattering measurements. IV. Ar + Ar,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1511 (1972).

Y. Tanaka and K. Yoshino, “Absorption spectrum of the He2 molecule in the 510–611-? range,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3087 (1969).

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

K. K. Docken and T. P. Schafer, “Spectroscopic information on ground-state Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2 from interatomic potentials,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 16, 454 (1973).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Spektrosk.

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, A. O. Morozov, A. Arnesen, and F. Heijkenskjold, “Stimulated emission of inert gas mixtures in the VUV range,” Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 327 (2002). [Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 290 (2002)].

G. N. Gerasimov, B. E. Krylov, R. Hallin, and A. Arnesen, “Parameters of VUV radiation from a DC capillary discharge in a mixture of krypton with xenon,” Opt. Spektrosk. 100, 904 (2006). [Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 825 (2006)].

Phys. Rev. A

S. L. Guberman and W. A. Goddard, “Nature of excited states of He2,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1203 (1975).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. A. G. Deacon, L. R. Elias, J. M. J. Madey, G. J. Ramian, H. A. Schwettman, and T. I. Smith, “First operation of a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 892 (1977).

Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Danilychev, Yu. M. Popov, and D. D. Khodkevich, “Quantum generator in the vacuum region of the spectrum when liquid xenon is excited by electron beam,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 12, 473 (1970). [JETP Lett. 12, 329 (1970)].

Spectrosc. Lett.

G. Gerasimov, “Excimer media gain,” Spectrosc. Lett. 34, 191 (2001).

Usp. Fiz. Nauk

G. N. Makarov, “The spectroscopy of clusters by intense pulses of VUV radiation from free-electron lasers,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 179, 487 (2009). [Phys. Usp. 52, 461 (2009)].

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.

N. S. Krylov and V. A. Fok, “On the two main interpretations of the energy–time uncertainty relationship,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 17, 93 (1947).

Other

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum Press, New York, 1995).

S. É. Frish, Optical Spectra of Atoms (Fiz. Mat. Giz, Moscow, 1963).

B. M. Smirnov and A. S. Yatsenko, Dimers (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1997).

A. R. Striganov and N. S. Sventitski?, Tables of the Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1966).

G. N. Zvereva, “Investigation and optimization of VUV sources based on inert-gas plasmas,” in Author’s Abstract of Dissertation for Doctor of Physicomathematical Sciences (Izd. LEMA, St. Petersburg, 2010).

I. N. Knyazev and V. S. Letokhov, Gas Lasers in the UV and VUV Spectral Regions: Handbook on Lasers (Izd. Sov. Radio, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 197–220.

J. D. Macomber, The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions: Illustrated by Magnetic Resonance and Laser Effects (Wiley, New York, 1976; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

V. A. Fok, Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976).

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