Abstract

This paper analyzes how well the parameters of microscope objectives correspond to the recommended series of standardized values and determines the requirements on the parameters of objectives and eyepieces from the condition that they match the properties of the eye. The conditions are determined for coherent and incoherent illumination of an observed object, and the results are presented of a study of how the degree of coherence of the illumination affects the image quality as a basis for optimizing the matching of the parameters of the illuminator optical system with the parameters of the observer optical system of a microscope. It is shown that a low utilization efficiency of the light flux formed by a microscope’s illuminating system can be increased by an order of magnitude if the illuminating system is based on a variable-magnification system. A relationship is obtained that determines the possibility of choosing the optimum system of the parameters of microscope objectives.

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  1. ISO 8038-85, 8040-86, GOST 3489-93, GOST 3-4024-78
  2. R. M. Raguzin and D. N. Frolov, "Conventions and standards will have to change in microscopy," Opt. Zh. 64(6), 70 (1993) [Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 64, 429 (1993)].
  3. M. Françon, "Phase-contrast and interference microscopy," Progress in Microscopy, New York, Row, Peterson and Company, 1961, Gos. Izd. Fiz.-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1960, pp. 64‒93.
  4. L. C. Martin, Technical Optics, Pitman, London, 1953, Gos. Izd. Fiz.-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1960.
  5. K. Michel, Die Grundlagen der Theorie des Mikroskops, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1950, Gostekhizdat, Moscow, 1955.
  6. V. A. Panov and L. N. Andreev, Microscope Optics. Calculation and Design, Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1976.
  7. L. N. Andreev, "The standardization of the optical characteristics of microscope objectives and eyepieces," Opt. Mekh. Prom. (11), 47 (1974).
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965, Nauka, Moscow, 1970.
  9. O. A. Vinogradova, "The analysis and optimization of the parameters of a microscope illuminator," Author’s Abstract of Candidate’s Dissertation, St. Petersburg, SPbGU ITMO, 2001.
  10. O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

2006 (1)

O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

1993 (1)

R. M. Raguzin and D. N. Frolov, "Conventions and standards will have to change in microscopy," Opt. Zh. 64(6), 70 (1993) [Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 64, 429 (1993)].

1974 (1)

L. N. Andreev, "The standardization of the optical characteristics of microscope objectives and eyepieces," Opt. Mekh. Prom. (11), 47 (1974).

Andreev, L. N.

L. N. Andreev, "The standardization of the optical characteristics of microscope objectives and eyepieces," Opt. Mekh. Prom. (11), 47 (1974).

V. A. Panov and L. N. Andreev, Microscope Optics. Calculation and Design, Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1976.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965, Nauka, Moscow, 1970.

Françon, M.

M. Françon, "Phase-contrast and interference microscopy," Progress in Microscopy, New York, Row, Peterson and Company, 1961, Gos. Izd. Fiz.-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1960, pp. 64‒93.

Frolov, D. N.

R. M. Raguzin and D. N. Frolov, "Conventions and standards will have to change in microscopy," Opt. Zh. 64(6), 70 (1993) [Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 64, 429 (1993)].

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics, Pitman, London, 1953, Gos. Izd. Fiz.-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1960.

Michel, K.

K. Michel, Die Grundlagen der Theorie des Mikroskops, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1950, Gostekhizdat, Moscow, 1955.

Panov, V. A.

V. A. Panov and L. N. Andreev, Microscope Optics. Calculation and Design, Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1976.

Raguzin, R. M.

R. M. Raguzin and D. N. Frolov, "Conventions and standards will have to change in microscopy," Opt. Zh. 64(6), 70 (1993) [Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 64, 429 (1993)].

Ramin, K.

O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

Tochilina, T. V.

O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

Vinogradova, O. A.

O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

O. A. Vinogradova, "The analysis and optimization of the parameters of a microscope illuminator," Author’s Abstract of Candidate’s Dissertation, St. Petersburg, SPbGU ITMO, 2001.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965, Nauka, Moscow, 1970.

Zverev, V. A.

O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

Opt. Mekh. Prom. (1)

L. N. Andreev, "The standardization of the optical characteristics of microscope objectives and eyepieces," Opt. Mekh. Prom. (11), 47 (1974).

Opt. Zh. (2)

O. A. Vinogradova, V. A. Zverev, T. V. Tochilina, and K. Ramin, "Variable-magnification system in a microscope illuminator," Opt. Zh. 73(10), 24 (2006) [J. Opt. Technol. 73, 678 (2006)].

R. M. Raguzin and D. N. Frolov, "Conventions and standards will have to change in microscopy," Opt. Zh. 64(6), 70 (1993) [Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 64, 429 (1993)].

Other (7)

M. Françon, "Phase-contrast and interference microscopy," Progress in Microscopy, New York, Row, Peterson and Company, 1961, Gos. Izd. Fiz.-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1960, pp. 64‒93.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics, Pitman, London, 1953, Gos. Izd. Fiz.-Mat. Lit, Moscow, 1960.

K. Michel, Die Grundlagen der Theorie des Mikroskops, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1950, Gostekhizdat, Moscow, 1955.

V. A. Panov and L. N. Andreev, Microscope Optics. Calculation and Design, Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1976.

ISO 8038-85, 8040-86, GOST 3489-93, GOST 3-4024-78

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965, Nauka, Moscow, 1970.

O. A. Vinogradova, "The analysis and optimization of the parameters of a microscope illuminator," Author’s Abstract of Candidate’s Dissertation, St. Petersburg, SPbGU ITMO, 2001.

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