Astronomical methods of navigation in interplanetary flight, using the directions to the planets and the ephemeris radius vectors of the planets have been used since the late 1960s. These methods have continued to evolve in connection with the performance of experiments in deep space, such as Grand Tour, Venus, Phobos, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini, and a number of others. Existing star sensors solve navigational problems by processing on-board observations at the command station of the flight. In developing the idea proposed earlier of a star sensor for navigation in the independent regime, a version of the fundamental optical layout is considered, along with original data for developing the technical specification on the production of this device.
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