Abstract

Medical infrared imaging is obtained by measuring the self-emitted infrared radiance from the human body. Infrared emission is related to surface temperature and temperature is one of the most important physiological parameters related to health. Though recent applications such as security identification and oriental medicine have provided new fields of biomedical applications, infrared thermography has had ups and downs in its usages in cancer detection. Some of the main difficulties include finding proper applications and efficient diagnostic algorithms. In this study, infrared thermal imaging was used to detect regional metastasis of breast cancer. Our measurements were done for 110 women. From 63 individuals of a Healthy Group and a Benign Breast Disease Group, we developed algorithms for differentiating malignant regional metastasis based on temperature difference and asymmetry of temperature distribution. Testing with 47 cancer patients, we achieved a positive predictive value of <TEX>$87.5\%$</TEX> and a negative predictive value of <TEX>$95.6\%$</TEX>. The results were better than for mammogram examination. A proper analysis of infrared imaging proved to be a highly informative and sensitive method for differentiating regional cancer metastasis from normal regions.

© 2005 Optical Society of Korea

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

K P. Schlebusch, W. Maric-Oeheler, and F-A Popp, "Biophotonics in the infrared spectral range reveal acupuncture meridian structure of the body," The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp 171-173, 2005
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. J. Van den Heuvel, S. A. Ferguson, S. S. Gilbert, and D. Dawson, "Thermoregulation in normal sleep and insomnia: the role of peripheral heat loss and new applications for digital thermal infrared imaging," Journal of Thermal Biology, vol. 29, pp 457-461, 2004
[CrossRef]

V. P. Zharov, S. Ferguson, J. F. Eidt, P.C. Howard, L.M. Fink, and M. Waner, "Infrared imaging of subcutaneous veins," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 34, pp 56-61, 2004
[CrossRef]

C-L Lin and K-C Fan, "Biometric verification using thermal images of palm-dorsa vein patterns," IEEE Transactions an Circuits and Systems far Video Technology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp 199-213, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Choi, K-S Soh, S.M. Lee, and G. Yoon, "Propagation of light along an Acupuncture meridian," Journal of the Optical Society of Korea, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 245-248, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C.S. Chen, M.F. Chen, T.L. Hwang, T.C. Chao, Y.F. Lo, S. Hsueh, J. T. Chang, and W. M. Leung, "Prediction of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in breast carcinoma," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 614-619, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

F. Cappello, M. Bellafiore, A. Palma, V. Marciano, G. Zummo, F. Farina, and F. Bucchieri, "Study of axillary lymph node asymmetry in a female population," J Anat., vol. 199, pp. 617-620, 2001
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gray, C.E. Cox, and D.S. Reintgen, "Importance of missed axillary micrometastases in breast cancer patients," Breast J., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 303-307, 2001
[CrossRef]

B. Cutuli, M. Velten, and C. Martin, "Assessment of axillary lymph node involvement in small breast cancer: analysis of 893 cases," Clin. Breast Cancer, vol. 2, no. 1, pp 59-65, 2001
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Anbar, C. Brown, L. Milescu, J. Babalola, and L. Gentner, "The potential of dynamic area telethermometry in assessing breast cancer," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 58-62, 2000
[CrossRef]

E. F. Solomayer, I. J. Diel, G. C. Meyberg, C. Gollan, and G. Bastert, "Metastatic breast cancer: clinical course, prognosis and therapy related to the first site of metastasis," Breast Cancer Res. Treat., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 271- 278, 2000
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Anbar, "Clinical thermal imaging today," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 25-33, 1998
[CrossRef]

B. F. Jones, "A reappraisal of the use of infrared thermal image analysis in medicine," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1019-1027, 1998
[CrossRef]

K. R. Foster, "Thermographic detection of breast cancer," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 10-14, 1998
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. F. Head, F. Wang, and R. L. Elliott, "Breast thermography is a noninvasive prognostic procedure that predicts tumor growth rate in breast cancer patients," Ann N Y Acad. Sci., vol. 698, pp. 153-158, 1993
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. E. Sterns, and B. Zee, "Thermography as a predictor of prognosis in cancer of the breast," Cancer, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1678-1680, 1991
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Steketee, "Spectral emissivity of the skin and pericardium," Phys. Med. BioI., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 686-694, 1973
[CrossRef]

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1)

J. F. Head, F. Wang, and R. L. Elliott, "Breast thermography is a noninvasive prognostic procedure that predicts tumor growth rate in breast cancer patients," Ann N Y Acad. Sci., vol. 698, pp. 153-158, 1993
[CrossRef]

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (1)

E. F. Solomayer, I. J. Diel, G. C. Meyberg, C. Gollan, and G. Bastert, "Metastatic breast cancer: clinical course, prognosis and therapy related to the first site of metastasis," Breast Cancer Res. Treat., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 271- 278, 2000
[CrossRef]

Cancer (1)

E. E. Sterns, and B. Zee, "Thermography as a predictor of prognosis in cancer of the breast," Cancer, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1678-1680, 1991
[CrossRef]

Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on (1)

C-L Lin and K-C Fan, "Biometric verification using thermal images of palm-dorsa vein patterns," IEEE Transactions an Circuits and Systems far Video Technology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp 199-213, 2004
[CrossRef]

Clinical Breast Cancer (1)

B. Cutuli, M. Velten, and C. Martin, "Assessment of axillary lymph node involvement in small breast cancer: analysis of 893 cases," Clin. Breast Cancer, vol. 2, no. 1, pp 59-65, 2001
[CrossRef]

Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE (3)

M. Anbar, "Clinical thermal imaging today," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 25-33, 1998
[CrossRef]

K. R. Foster, "Thermographic detection of breast cancer," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 10-14, 1998
[CrossRef]

M. Anbar, C. Brown, L. Milescu, J. Babalola, and L. Gentner, "The potential of dynamic area telethermometry in assessing breast cancer," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 58-62, 2000
[CrossRef]

International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics (1)

C.S. Chen, M.F. Chen, T.L. Hwang, T.C. Chao, Y.F. Lo, S. Hsueh, J. T. Chang, and W. M. Leung, "Prediction of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in breast carcinoma," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 614-619, 2002
[CrossRef]

Journal of Anatomy (1)

F. Cappello, M. Bellafiore, A. Palma, V. Marciano, G. Zummo, F. Farina, and F. Bucchieri, "Study of axillary lymph node asymmetry in a female population," J Anat., vol. 199, pp. 617-620, 2001
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (1)

C. Choi, K-S Soh, S.M. Lee, and G. Yoon, "Propagation of light along an Acupuncture meridian," Journal of the Optical Society of Korea, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 245-248, 2003
[CrossRef]

Journal of Thermal Biology (1)

C. J. Van den Heuvel, S. A. Ferguson, S. S. Gilbert, and D. Dawson, "Thermoregulation in normal sleep and insomnia: the role of peripheral heat loss and new applications for digital thermal infrared imaging," Journal of Thermal Biology, vol. 29, pp 457-461, 2004
[CrossRef]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (1)

V. P. Zharov, S. Ferguson, J. F. Eidt, P.C. Howard, L.M. Fink, and M. Waner, "Infrared imaging of subcutaneous veins," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 34, pp 56-61, 2004
[CrossRef]

Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on (1)

B. F. Jones, "A reappraisal of the use of infrared thermal image analysis in medicine," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1019-1027, 1998
[CrossRef]

Physics in Medicine Biology (1)

J. Steketee, "Spectral emissivity of the skin and pericardium," Phys. Med. BioI., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 686-694, 1973
[CrossRef]

The Breast Journal (1)

R. J. Gray, C.E. Cox, and D.S. Reintgen, "Importance of missed axillary micrometastases in breast cancer patients," Breast J., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 303-307, 2001
[CrossRef]

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (1)

K P. Schlebusch, W. Maric-Oeheler, and F-A Popp, "Biophotonics in the infrared spectral range reveal acupuncture meridian structure of the body," The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp 171-173, 2005
[CrossRef]

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