Abstract

An electrically controllable fiber Bragg grating inscribed in a hydrogen-loaded standard single-mode fiber with liquid-crystal cladding is presented. Control of the optic axis of liquid crystals by means of external electric fields results in the change of reflectivity and Bragg wavelength of the grating. The increase of surrounding refractive index of a fiber makes effective refractive index of a propagation mode higher, which results in high field confinement and longer Bragg wavelength. The reduction of the fiber diameter by chemical etching process improves the long-range ordering of liquid-crystal molecules and reduces controlling voltage. The tunable ranges of reflectivity and Bragg wavelength of the liquid crystal-cladding fiber Bragg grating were <TEX>$\~4.6dB\;and\;\~0.3nm$</TEX>, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1263-1276, 1997
    [Crossref]
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58-65, 1996
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, pp. 57-79, 2003
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, "Characteristics of short-period blazed fiber Bragg gratings for macro-bending sensors," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, pp. 631-636, 2002
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer using multiport optical circulators and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 561-563, 2000
    [Crossref]
  6. D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1458-1460, 1999
    [Crossref]
  7. J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y.-G. Han, S.-H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, "Wavelength and repetition rate tunable optical pulse source using a chirped fiber Bragg grating and a nonlinear optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 34-36, 2005
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Kwon, and B. Lee, "Dispersion tuning of a chirped fiber Bragg grating using a multisectional bending structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 408-410, 2005
    [Crossref]
  9. D.-W. Huang, W.-F. Liu, C.-W. Wu, and C. C. Yang, "Reflectivity-tunable fiber Bragg grating reflectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 176-178, 2000
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1217-1221, 1999
    [Crossref]
  11. O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, M. Douay, and L. Rivoallan, "Long period fiber gratings modulation by liquid crystal cladding," in Proc. 6th lEE Conf. on Telecommunications, pp. 195-197, 1998
  12. Y. Jeong, H.-R. Kim, S. Baek, Y. Kim, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Polarization-isolated electrical modulation of an etched long-period fiber grating with an outer liquid-crystal cladding," Opt. Eng., vol. 42, pp. 964-968, 2003
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1277-1294, 1997
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, "Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized NxN coupled-mode theory by sectionwise discretization," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 3, pp. 55-63, 1999
    [Crossref]
  15. I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals, Wiley, New York, 1994
  16. S.-T. Wu and U. Efron, "Optical property of thin nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 624-626, 1986
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. S. Kawakami, and S. Nishida, "Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding," IEEE J. Quantum Eleciron., vol. QE-10, pp. 879-887, 1974
    [Crossref]
  20. A. W. Snyder, and W. R. Young, "Modes of optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 68, pp. 297-309, 1978
    [Crossref]
  21. S.-P. Ma and S.-M. Tseng, "High-performance sidepolished fibers and applications as liquid crystal clad fiber polarizers," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1554-1558, 1997
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y.-G. Han, S.-H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, "Wavelength and repetition rate tunable optical pulse source using a chirped fiber Bragg grating and a nonlinear optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 34-36, 2005
[Crossref]

J. Kwon, and B. Lee, "Dispersion tuning of a chirped fiber Bragg grating using a multisectional bending structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 408-410, 2005
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, pp. 57-79, 2003
[Crossref]

Y. Jeong, H.-R. Kim, S. Baek, Y. Kim, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Polarization-isolated electrical modulation of an etched long-period fiber grating with an outer liquid-crystal cladding," Opt. Eng., vol. 42, pp. 964-968, 2003
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, "Characteristics of short-period blazed fiber Bragg gratings for macro-bending sensors," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, pp. 631-636, 2002
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer using multiport optical circulators and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 561-563, 2000
[Crossref]

D.-W. Huang, W.-F. Liu, C.-W. Wu, and C. C. Yang, "Reflectivity-tunable fiber Bragg grating reflectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 176-178, 2000
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1217-1221, 1999
[Crossref]

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1458-1460, 1999
[Crossref]

Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, "Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized NxN coupled-mode theory by sectionwise discretization," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 3, pp. 55-63, 1999
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, M. Douay, and L. Rivoallan, "Long period fiber gratings modulation by liquid crystal cladding," in Proc. 6th lEE Conf. on Telecommunications, pp. 195-197, 1998

1997 (3)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1277-1294, 1997
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1263-1276, 1997
[Crossref]

S.-P. Ma and S.-M. Tseng, "High-performance sidepolished fibers and applications as liquid crystal clad fiber polarizers," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1554-1558, 1997
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58-65, 1996
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals, Wiley, New York, 1994

1987 (1)

E. P. Raynes, "The chemistry and physics of thermotropic liquid crystals," in Electro-optic and Photorefractive Materials, P. Gunter, Ed., Springer Proceedings in Physics, vol. 18, pp. 80-89, Springer, Berlin, 1987

1986 (1)

S.-T. Wu and U. Efron, "Optical property of thin nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 624-626, 1986
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Monerie, "Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Eleciron., vol. QE-18, pp. 535-542, 1982
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

A. W. Snyder, and W. R. Young, "Modes of optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 68, pp. 297-309, 1978
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

S. Kawakami, and S. Nishida, "Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding," IEEE J. Quantum Eleciron., vol. QE-10, pp. 879-887, 1974
[Crossref]

Applied Optics (1)

S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, "Characteristics of short-period blazed fiber Bragg gratings for macro-bending sensors," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, pp. 631-636, 2002
[Crossref]

Applied Physics Letters (1)

S.-T. Wu and U. Efron, "Optical property of thin nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 624-626, 1986
[Crossref]

Electro-optic and Photorefractive Materials;Springer Proceedings in Physics (1)

E. P. Raynes, "The chemistry and physics of thermotropic liquid crystals," in Electro-optic and Photorefractive Materials, P. Gunter, Ed., Springer Proceedings in Physics, vol. 18, pp. 80-89, Springer, Berlin, 1987

Journal of the Optical Society of America (1)

A. W. Snyder, and W. R. Young, "Modes of optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 68, pp. 297-309, 1978
[Crossref]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (1)

Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, "Long-period fiber grating analysis using generalized NxN coupled-mode theory by sectionwise discretization," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 3, pp. 55-63, 1999
[Crossref]

Lightwave Technology, Journal of (5)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1277-1294, 1997
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1263-1276, 1997
[Crossref]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58-65, 1996
[Crossref]

A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1217-1221, 1999
[Crossref]

S.-P. Ma and S.-M. Tseng, "High-performance sidepolished fibers and applications as liquid crystal clad fiber polarizers," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1554-1558, 1997
[Crossref]

Optical Engineering (1)

Y. Jeong, H.-R. Kim, S. Baek, Y. Kim, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Polarization-isolated electrical modulation of an etched long-period fiber grating with an outer liquid-crystal cladding," Opt. Eng., vol. 42, pp. 964-968, 2003
[Crossref]

Optical Fiber Technology (1)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, pp. 57-79, 2003
[Crossref]

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE (5)

J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer using multiport optical circulators and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 561-563, 2000
[Crossref]

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1458-1460, 1999
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y.-G. Han, S.-H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, "Wavelength and repetition rate tunable optical pulse source using a chirped fiber Bragg grating and a nonlinear optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 34-36, 2005
[Crossref]

J. Kwon, and B. Lee, "Dispersion tuning of a chirped fiber Bragg grating using a multisectional bending structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 408-410, 2005
[Crossref]

D.-W. Huang, W.-F. Liu, C.-W. Wu, and C. C. Yang, "Reflectivity-tunable fiber Bragg grating reflectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 176-178, 2000
[Crossref]

Proc. 6th lEE Conf. on Telecommunications (1)

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, M. Douay, and L. Rivoallan, "Long period fiber gratings modulation by liquid crystal cladding," in Proc. 6th lEE Conf. on Telecommunications, pp. 195-197, 1998

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2)

M. Monerie, "Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Eleciron., vol. QE-18, pp. 535-542, 1982
[Crossref]

S. Kawakami, and S. Nishida, "Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding," IEEE J. Quantum Eleciron., vol. QE-10, pp. 879-887, 1974
[Crossref]

Other (1)

I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals, Wiley, New York, 1994

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