Abstract

We report a new configuration of a reflection-type confocal scanning optical microscope system for measuring the refractive index profile of an optical waveguide. Several improvements on the earlier design are proposed; a light emitting diode (LED) at 650 nm wavelength instead of a laser diode (LD) or He-Ne laser is used as a light source for better index precision, and a simple longitudinal linear scanning and curve fitting techniques are adapted instead of a servo control for maintaining an optical confocal arrangement. We have obtained spatial resolution of 700 nm and an index precision of <TEX>$2\times10^{-4}$</TEX>. To verify the system's capability, the refractive index profiles of a conventional multimode fiber and a home-made four-mode fiber were examined with our proposed measurement method.

© 2005 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements (Academic, New York, 1981)
  2. W.J. Stewart, "A new technique for measuring the refractive index profiles of graded optical fibers," in Tech. Digest: Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun.(IOOC, Tokyo, 1977) Paper C2-2
  3. M.E. Marhic, P.S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975)
    [CrossRef]
  4. F.M.E. Sladen, D.N. Payne, and M.J. Adams, "Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255-258 (1976)
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975)
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, and H. Yoshikiyo, "Refractive index profile of a graded index fiber: measurement by a reflection method," Appl, Opt. 14, 814-815 (1975)
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Tateda, "Single-mode-fiber refractive-index profile measurement by reflection method," Appl. Opt. 17, 475-478 (1978)
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Calzavara, B. Costa and B. Sordo, "Stability and noise improvement in reflectometric index measurement," in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 5-8 (1980)
  9. T. Wilson, J.N. Gannaway and C.J.R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Stone and H.E. Earl, "Surface effects and reflection refractometry of optical fibers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459-463 (1976)
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Park, N.H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D.Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002)
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Park, N.H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D.Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002)
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements (Academic, New York, 1981)

1980 (2)

M. Calzavara, B. Costa and B. Sordo, "Stability and noise improvement in reflectometric index measurement," in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 5-8 (1980)

T. Wilson, J.N. Gannaway and C.J.R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980)
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Tateda, "Single-mode-fiber refractive-index profile measurement by reflection method," Appl. Opt. 17, 475-478 (1978)
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W.J. Stewart, "A new technique for measuring the refractive index profiles of graded optical fibers," in Tech. Digest: Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun.(IOOC, Tokyo, 1977) Paper C2-2

1976 (2)

F.M.E. Sladen, D.N. Payne, and M.J. Adams, "Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255-258 (1976)
[CrossRef]

J. Stone and H.E. Earl, "Surface effects and reflection refractometry of optical fibers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459-463 (1976)
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975)
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, and H. Yoshikiyo, "Refractive index profile of a graded index fiber: measurement by a reflection method," Appl, Opt. 14, 814-815 (1975)
[CrossRef]

M.E. Marhic, P.S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (2)

M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, and H. Yoshikiyo, "Refractive index profile of a graded index fiber: measurement by a reflection method," Appl, Opt. 14, 814-815 (1975)
[CrossRef]

M. Tateda, "Single-mode-fiber refractive-index profile measurement by reflection method," Appl. Opt. 17, 475-478 (1978)
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters (2)

M.E. Marhic, P.S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975)
[CrossRef]

F.M.E. Sladen, D.N. Payne, and M.J. Adams, "Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255-258 (1976)
[CrossRef]

Measurement Science and Technology (1)

Y. Park, N.H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D.Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Optical and Quantum Electronics (3)

W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975)
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, J.N. Gannaway and C.J.R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980)
[CrossRef]

J. Stone and H.E. Earl, "Surface effects and reflection refractometry of optical fibers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459-463 (1976)
[CrossRef]

Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (1)

M. Calzavara, B. Costa and B. Sordo, "Stability and noise improvement in reflectometric index measurement," in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 5-8 (1980)

Tech. Digest: Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun (1)

W.J. Stewart, "A new technique for measuring the refractive index profiles of graded optical fibers," in Tech. Digest: Int. Conf. Integrated Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun.(IOOC, Tokyo, 1977) Paper C2-2

Other (1)

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements (Academic, New York, 1981)

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