Abstract

When femtosecond laser pulses are focused inside the bulk of transparent materials, the intensity in the focal volume becomes high enough to produce permanent structural modifications. This technique has been applied to fabricate three-dimensional photonic structures such as optical memory, waveguides, gratings, and couplers inside a wide variety of transparent materials. In this paper, we review the fabrication of optical elements in glasses with femtosecond laser pulses, including the fabrication of waveguides, couplers, Bragg gratings, zone plates, holographic memory, and micro holes.

© 2004 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003)
  2. K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Devices (Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 2001)
  3. K. Itoh and W. Watanabe, "Toward nano- and micro-processing in glass with femtosecond laser pulses,"RIKEN Review, vol. 50, pp. 90-94, 2003
  4. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao,"Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, 1729, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 19, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 93, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. TueIlllermarm, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. vol. 41, 4360, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A. vol. 77, 109, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M. -C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. vol. 93, 3724, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at <TEX>$1.5 {\mu}m$</TEX> by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. vol. 27, 1938, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. vol. 326&327, 472, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecondlaser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 24, 1311, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, pp. 42-44, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 1516, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 645, 2002.
  16. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, "Wavelength division using three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filament at ion of femtosecond laser pulses,"Opt. Lett. vol. 28, 2491, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  17. K Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. vol. 93, 1889, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  18. K Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Volume grating induced by a self-trapped long filament of femtosecond laser pulses in silica glass," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 42, 6916, 2003.
  19. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. vol. 171, 279, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K Yamada, T. Shinagawa, and K. Itoh, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, "Holographic fabrication of multiple layers of grating inside soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 80, 1508, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Fabrication of surface relief gratings on transparent dielectric materials by two-beam holographic method using infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. vol. 71, 119, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Holographic writing of volwne-type microgratings in silica glass by a single chirped laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, 1137, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and X. Sun, "Holographic data storage on nonsensitive glass with a single femtosecond laser pulse", Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, 1952, 2002.
  24. Y. Li, K. Yamada, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and Z. Zhou, "Single femtosecond pulse holography using polymethyl methacrylate," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 1173, 2002.
  25. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, 2023, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven microexplosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 71, 882, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K Hayashi, and K Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 25, 1669, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Watanabe and K. Itoh, "Motion of bubble in solid by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 603, 2002.
  29. W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 978, 2002.
  30. E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. vol. 27, 2200, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 38, L1146, 1999.
  32. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 277, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, A. Helvajian, and K Midorikawa, "3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation," Appl. Phys. A vol. 76, 857, 2003.
  34. Y. Li, Ki Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 1912, 2001.
  35. S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, 1. Yokota, K. Midorikawa and M. Obara, "Observation of self-chaIllleled plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 37, L737, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. Liu, O. Kosareva, 1. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filament at ion of femtosecond laser pulses in water," Appl. Phys. B vol. 75, 595, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of optical waveguides (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000) Chapter 4.
  38. D. Marcuse, Light transmission optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).
  39. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnarovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum,"Untra-high resolutin index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica glass," Opt. Express. vol. 11, 775, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  40. E. Hecht: Optics (Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 2002) 4th ed., Chap. 10, p. 443.
  41. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Sys. Tech. J. vol. 48, 1969, 2909.

2003 (10)

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003)

K. Itoh and W. Watanabe, "Toward nano- and micro-processing in glass with femtosecond laser pulses,"RIKEN Review, vol. 50, pp. 90-94, 2003

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A. vol. 77, 109, 2003
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M. -C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. vol. 93, 3724, 2003
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. vol. 326&327, 472, 2003
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, "Wavelength division using three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filament at ion of femtosecond laser pulses,"Opt. Lett. vol. 28, 2491, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. vol. 93, 1889, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Volume grating induced by a self-trapped long filament of femtosecond laser pulses in silica glass," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 42, 6916, 2003.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, A. Helvajian, and K Midorikawa, "3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation," Appl. Phys. A vol. 76, 857, 2003.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnarovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum,"Untra-high resolutin index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica glass," Opt. Express. vol. 11, 775, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (12)

E. Hecht: Optics (Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 2002) 4th ed., Chap. 10, p. 443.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, 1. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filament at ion of femtosecond laser pulses in water," Appl. Phys. B vol. 75, 595, 2002.
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe and K. Itoh, "Motion of bubble in solid by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 603, 2002.

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 978, 2002.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. vol. 27, 2200, 2002.
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. TueIlllermarm, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. vol. 41, 4360, 2002
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 645, 2002.

Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K Yamada, T. Shinagawa, and K. Itoh, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, "Holographic fabrication of multiple layers of grating inside soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 80, 1508, 2002.
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Holographic writing of volwne-type microgratings in silica glass by a single chirped laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, 1137, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and X. Sun, "Holographic data storage on nonsensitive glass with a single femtosecond laser pulse", Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, 1952, 2002.

Y. Li, K. Yamada, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and Z. Zhou, "Single femtosecond pulse holography using polymethyl methacrylate," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 1173, 2002.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at <TEX>$1.5 {\mu}m$</TEX> by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. vol. 27, 1938, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (7)

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 19, 2001
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 93, 2001
[CrossRef]

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Devices (Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 2001)

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, pp. 42-44, 2001
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 1516, 2001
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Ki Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 1912, 2001.

A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 277, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of optical waveguides (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000) Chapter 4.

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K Hayashi, and K Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 25, 1669, 2000.
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Fabrication of surface relief gratings on transparent dielectric materials by two-beam holographic method using infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. vol. 71, 119, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 38, L1146, 1999.

D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecondlaser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 24, 1311, 1999
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. vol. 171, 279, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, 1. Yokota, K. Midorikawa and M. Obara, "Observation of self-chaIllleled plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 37, L737, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven microexplosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 71, 882, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, 2023, 1996.
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao,"Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, 1729, 1996
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, Light transmission optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Sys. Tech. J. vol. 48, 1969, 2909.

Appl. Phys A. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A. vol. 77, 109, 2003
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, A. Helvajian, and K Midorikawa, "3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation," Appl. Phys. A vol. 76, 857, 2003.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, 1. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filament at ion of femtosecond laser pulses in water," Appl. Phys. B vol. 75, 595, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Holographic writing of volwne-type microgratings in silica glass by a single chirped laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, 1137, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and X. Sun, "Holographic data storage on nonsensitive glass with a single femtosecond laser pulse", Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, 1952, 2002.

Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K Yamada, T. Shinagawa, and K. Itoh, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, "Holographic fabrication of multiple layers of grating inside soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 80, 1508, 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven microexplosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 71, 882, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics. (1)

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. TueIlllermarm, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. vol. 41, 4360, 2002
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Fabrication of surface relief gratings on transparent dielectric materials by two-beam holographic method using infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. vol. 71, 119, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Sys. Tech. J. vol. 48, 1969, 2909.

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M. -C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. vol. 93, 3724, 2003
[CrossRef]

K Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. vol. 93, 1889, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. vol. 326&327, 472, 2003
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

K Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Volume grating induced by a self-trapped long filament of femtosecond laser pulses in silica glass," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 42, 6916, 2003.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 38, L1146, 1999.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, 1. Yokota, K. Midorikawa and M. Obara, "Observation of self-chaIllleled plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 37, L737, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Express. (2)

Y. Li, K. Yamada, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and Z. Zhou, "Single femtosecond pulse holography using polymethyl methacrylate," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 1173, 2002.

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express. vol. 10, 645, 2002.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Communications (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. vol. 171, 279, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (1)

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnarovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum,"Untra-high resolutin index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica glass," Opt. Express. vol. 11, 775, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (12)

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, "Wavelength division using three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filament at ion of femtosecond laser pulses,"Opt. Lett. vol. 28, 2491, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecondlaser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 24, 1311, 1999
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, pp. 42-44, 2001
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 1516, 2001
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at <TEX>$1.5 {\mu}m$</TEX> by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. vol. 27, 1938, 2002
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao,"Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, 1729, 1996
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 19, 2001
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 93, 2001
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. vol. 27, 2200, 2002.
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. vol. 26, 277, 2001.
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. vol. 21, 2023, 1996.
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K Hayashi, and K Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. vol. 25, 1669, 2000.
[CrossRef]

RIKEN Review (1)

K. Itoh and W. Watanabe, "Toward nano- and micro-processing in glass with femtosecond laser pulses,"RIKEN Review, vol. 50, pp. 90-94, 2003

Other (5)

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003)

K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass for Photonic Devices (Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 2001)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of optical waveguides (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000) Chapter 4.

D. Marcuse, Light transmission optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

E. Hecht: Optics (Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 2002) 4th ed., Chap. 10, p. 443.

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