Abstract

A new method to control the free spectral range of a long period fiber grating is proposed and theoretically analyzed. As the refractive index decreases radially outward in the silica cladding due to graded doping of fluorine, waveguide dispersion in the cladding modes was modified to result in the effective indices change and subsequently the phase matching conditions for coupling with the core mode in a long period fiber grating. Enlargement of the free spectral range in a long period fiber grating was theoretically confirmed.

© 2003 Optical Society of Korea

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, and T. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58−65, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O.Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, and L. Rivoallan, “Longperiod fiber grating as a wavelength selective polarization element,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 616−617, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1223−1225, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operation 1.47 <TEX>$\MU$</TEX>m,” IEEE Quantum Electron., vol. 31, pp. 1880−1889, 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kani, M. Jinno, and K. Oguchi, “Fiber Raman amplifier for 1520-nm band WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1745−1747, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier with 54 dB gain and 3.1 dB noise figure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1345−1347, 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Massicott, R. Wyatt, and B. J. Ainslie, “Low noise operation of <TEX>$Er^{3+}$</TEX>-doped silica fibre amplifier around 1.6 <TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 1924−1925, 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-modecoupled gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 1830−1832, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Qun Li, Xiaoming Liu, Jiangde Peng, Bingkun Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 337−339, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Clowes, J. McInnes, M. N. Zervas, and D. N. Payne, “Effects of high temperature and pressure on silica optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 403−405, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Jeong and K. Oh, “Enhancement of free spectral range of the resonance peaks in a long-period fiber grating by controlling material dispersion of cladding modes,” Opt. Commun., vol. 199, pp. 103−110, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Fleming, “Material dispersion in lightguide glasses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, p. 326, 1978.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and K.-F. Klein, “Diffusion behavior of fluorine in fiber lightguide materials,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC/IOOC) "93, technical digest, paper WG4, 1993.
  14. M. Stern, Finite-difference analysis of planar optical waveguides, Chapter 4, in PIER 10 (Progress in Electromagnetic Research 10) edited by W. P. Huang, Cambridge, Massachusetts, EMW Publishing, 1995.
  15. T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 14, pp. 1760−1773, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Tsao, Optical fibre waveguide analysis, Chapter 10, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992.
  17. J. W. Fleming and D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Applied Optics, vol. 22, pp. 3102−3104, 1983.
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Oh, U. C. Ryu, S. Kim, J. Yu, H. Jeong, and U. C. Paek, “Evanescent wave filter made of optical fiber with Er doped ring in the inner cladding,” Optoelectronics and communications conference"2000, Tech. Dig. paper 12P-49, Chiba, Japan, 2000.

2002

Qun Li, Xiaoming Liu, Jiangde Peng, Bingkun Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 337−339, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Jeong and K. Oh, “Enhancement of free spectral range of the resonance peaks in a long-period fiber grating by controlling material dispersion of cladding modes,” Opt. Commun., vol. 199, pp. 103−110, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Oh, U. C. Ryu, S. Kim, J. Yu, H. Jeong, and U. C. Paek, “Evanescent wave filter made of optical fiber with Er doped ring in the inner cladding,” Optoelectronics and communications conference"2000, Tech. Dig. paper 12P-49, Chiba, Japan, 2000.

1998

J. R. Clowes, J. McInnes, M. N. Zervas, and D. N. Payne, “Effects of high temperature and pressure on silica optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 403−405, 1998.
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, M. Jinno, and K. Oguchi, “Fiber Raman amplifier for 1520-nm band WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1745−1747, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O.Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, and L. Rivoallan, “Longperiod fiber grating as a wavelength selective polarization element,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 616−617, 1997.
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 14, pp. 1760−1773, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1223−1225, 1996.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, and T. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58−65, 1996.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-modecoupled gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 1830−1832, 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operation 1.47 <TEX>$\MU$</TEX>m,” IEEE Quantum Electron., vol. 31, pp. 1880−1889, 1995.
[CrossRef]

M. Stern, Finite-difference analysis of planar optical waveguides, Chapter 4, in PIER 10 (Progress in Electromagnetic Research 10) edited by W. P. Huang, Cambridge, Massachusetts, EMW Publishing, 1995.

1993

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and K.-F. Klein, “Diffusion behavior of fluorine in fiber lightguide materials,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC/IOOC) "93, technical digest, paper WG4, 1993.

1992

C. Tsao, Optical fibre waveguide analysis, Chapter 10, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992.

R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier with 54 dB gain and 3.1 dB noise figure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1345−1347, 1992.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Massicott, R. Wyatt, and B. J. Ainslie, “Low noise operation of <TEX>$Er^{3+}$</TEX>-doped silica fibre amplifier around 1.6 <TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 1924−1925, 1992.
[CrossRef]

1983

J. W. Fleming and D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Applied Optics, vol. 22, pp. 3102−3104, 1983.
[CrossRef]

1978

J. W. Fleming, “Material dispersion in lightguide glasses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, p. 326, 1978.
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

J. W. Fleming and D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Applied Optics, vol. 22, pp. 3102−3104, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. W. Fleming, “Material dispersion in lightguide glasses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, p. 326, 1978.
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, M. Jinno, and K. Oguchi, “Fiber Raman amplifier for 1520-nm band WDM transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1745−1747, 1998.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Massicott, R. Wyatt, and B. J. Ainslie, “Low noise operation of <TEX>$Er^{3+}$</TEX>-doped silica fibre amplifier around 1.6 <TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 1924−1925, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O.Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, and L. Rivoallan, “Longperiod fiber grating as a wavelength selective polarization element,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 616−617, 1997.
[CrossRef]

JOSA A

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 14, pp. 1760−1773, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Lightwave Technology, Journal of

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, and T. Erdogan, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58−65, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC/IOOC) '93

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and K.-F. Klein, “Diffusion behavior of fluorine in fiber lightguide materials,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC/IOOC) "93, technical digest, paper WG4, 1993.

Optics Communications

H. Jeong and K. Oh, “Enhancement of free spectral range of the resonance peaks in a long-period fiber grating by controlling material dispersion of cladding modes,” Opt. Commun., vol. 199, pp. 103−110, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters

S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-modecoupled gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 1830−1832, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Optoelectronics and communications conference'2000

K. Oh, U. C. Ryu, S. Kim, J. Yu, H. Jeong, and U. C. Paek, “Evanescent wave filter made of optical fiber with Er doped ring in the inner cladding,” Optoelectronics and communications conference"2000, Tech. Dig. paper 12P-49, Chiba, Japan, 2000.

Photon Technol. Lett.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1223−1225, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE

R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier with 54 dB gain and 3.1 dB noise figure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1345−1347, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Qun Li, Xiaoming Liu, Jiangde Peng, Bingkun Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 337−339, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Clowes, J. McInnes, M. N. Zervas, and D. N. Payne, “Effects of high temperature and pressure on silica optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 403−405, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operation 1.47 <TEX>$\MU$</TEX>m,” IEEE Quantum Electron., vol. 31, pp. 1880−1889, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Tsao, Optical fibre waveguide analysis, Chapter 10, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992.

M. Stern, Finite-difference analysis of planar optical waveguides, Chapter 4, in PIER 10 (Progress in Electromagnetic Research 10) edited by W. P. Huang, Cambridge, Massachusetts, EMW Publishing, 1995.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.