Abstract

Effect of soaking temperature on erbium doping of the optical fiber core during solution doping procedure, especially in the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process, was investigated. The concentration of dopants such as <TEX>$Er^{3+} and Al^{3+}$</TEX> in the preforms and the optical fibers measured by the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) was found to increase with decreasing the soaking temperature. The increase in the concentration of the <TEX>$Er^{3+}$</TEX> is attributed to the precipitation of the erbium due to the decrease in the solubility as well as the increase of capillary force and viscosity of the doping solution by decreasing the temperature.

© 2003 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1993) pp. 19-21.
  2. S. Sudo, Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Artech House Inc., Boston, 1997) pp. 9-16
  3. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, San Diego,1999) pp. 21-23.
  4. W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber am-plifiers at 1500nm," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 234-250, 1991.
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Wood, K. L. Walker, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, and R. Csencsits, "Germanium chemistry in the MCVD process for optical fiber fabrication," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 277-285, 1987.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC press, New York, 2000) p. 6-3, p. 8-103, p. 15-16.
  7. R. K. Iler, The Chemistry of Silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979) pp. 488-505.
  8. T. C. Papanastasiou, Applied Fluid Mechanics (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1994) pp. 7-22.
  9. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1998) p. 342.
  10. G. K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994) pp. 63-68.

2000

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC press, New York, 2000) p. 6-3, p. 8-103, p. 15-16.

1999

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, San Diego,1999) pp. 21-23.

1998

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1998) p. 342.

1997

S. Sudo, Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Artech House Inc., Boston, 1997) pp. 9-16

1994

G. K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994) pp. 63-68.

T. C. Papanastasiou, Applied Fluid Mechanics (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1994) pp. 7-22.

1993

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1993) pp. 19-21.

1991

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber am-plifiers at 1500nm," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 234-250, 1991.
[CrossRef]

1987

D. L. Wood, K. L. Walker, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, and R. Csencsits, "Germanium chemistry in the MCVD process for optical fiber fabrication," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 277-285, 1987.
[CrossRef]

1979

R. K. Iler, The Chemistry of Silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979) pp. 488-505.

Lightwave Technology, Journal of

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber am-plifiers at 1500nm," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 234-250, 1991.
[CrossRef]

D. L. Wood, K. L. Walker, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, and R. Csencsits, "Germanium chemistry in the MCVD process for optical fiber fabrication," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 277-285, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC press, New York, 2000) p. 6-3, p. 8-103, p. 15-16.

R. K. Iler, The Chemistry of Silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979) pp. 488-505.

T. C. Papanastasiou, Applied Fluid Mechanics (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1994) pp. 7-22.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1998) p. 342.

G. K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994) pp. 63-68.

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1993) pp. 19-21.

S. Sudo, Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Artech House Inc., Boston, 1997) pp. 9-16

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic Press, San Diego,1999) pp. 21-23.

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