Abstract

Transparent film heaters (TFHs) based on Joule heating are currently an active research area. However, TFHs based on an indium tin oxide (ITO) monolayer have a number of problems. For example, heating is concentrated in only part of the device. Also, heating efficiency is low because it has high sheet resistance (Rs). To address these problems, this study introduced hybrid layers of ITO/Ag/ITO deposited by magnetron sputtering, and the electrical, optical, and thermal properties were estimated for various thicknesses of the metal interlayer. The Rs of ITO(40)/Ag/ITO(40 nm) hybrid TFHs were 5.33, 3.29 and 2.15 Ω/□ for Ag thicknesses of 10, 15, and 20 nm, respectively, while the Rs of an ITO monolayer (95 nm) was 59.58 Ω/□. The maximum temperatures of these hybrid TFHs were 92, 131, and 145°C, respectively, under a voltage of 3 V. And that of the ITO monolayer was only 32°C. For the same total thickness of 95 nm, the heat generation rate (HGR) of the hybrid produced a temperature approximately 100°C higher than the ITO monolayer. It was confirmed that the film with the lowest Rs of the samples had the highest HGR for the same applied voltage. Overall, hybrid layers of ITO/Ag/ITO showed excellent performance for HGR, uniformity of heat distribution, and thermal response time.

© 2016 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Girtan, “Comparison of ITO/metal/ITO and ZnO/metal/ZnO characteristics as transparent electrodes for third generation solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 153-161 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. G. Granqvist, “Solar energy materials,” Advanced Materials 15, 1789-1803 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. G. Cheong, D. W. Song, and J. W. Park, “Transparent film heaters with highly enhanced thermal efficiency using silver nanowires and metal/metal-oxide blankets,” Microelectron. Eng. 146, 11-18 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).
  11. P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).
  12. K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. S. Park and H. K. Kim, “Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28, 41-47 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. H. Cheng and J. M. Ting, “Transparent conducting GZO, Pt/GZO, and GZO/Pt/GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 203-207 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. C. Lin, J. Y. Li, and W. T. Yen, “Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science 254, 2362-3268 (2008).
  18. J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).
  21. S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. H. Park et al., “Roll to roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications,” Scientific Reports 6, 33868 (2016).
  23. E. H. Ko et al., “Nano-sized Ag inserted into ITO film prepared by continuous roll to roll sputtering for high performance, flexible, transparent film heaters,” RCS Advances 6, 46634 (2016).

2016 (2)

S. H. Park et al., “Roll to roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications,” Scientific Reports 6, 33868 (2016).

E. H. Ko et al., “Nano-sized Ag inserted into ITO film prepared by continuous roll to roll sputtering for high performance, flexible, transparent film heaters,” RCS Advances 6, 46634 (2016).

2015 (2)

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. G. Cheong, D. W. Song, and J. W. Park, “Transparent film heaters with highly enhanced thermal efficiency using silver nanowires and metal/metal-oxide blankets,” Microelectron. Eng. 146, 11-18 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Girtan, “Comparison of ITO/metal/ITO and ZnO/metal/ZnO characteristics as transparent electrodes for third generation solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 153-161 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Y. S. Park and H. K. Kim, “Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28, 41-47 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, J. Y. Li, and W. T. Yen, “Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science 254, 2362-3268 (2008).

2007 (2)

C. H. Cheng and J. M. Ting, “Transparent conducting GZO, Pt/GZO, and GZO/Pt/GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 203-207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. G. Granqvist, “Solar energy materials,” Advanced Materials 15, 1789-1803 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akao, H.

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

Ballif, C.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bang, Y. Y.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bellet, D.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Celle, C.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Chae, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. H.

C. H. Cheng and J. M. Ting, “Transparent conducting GZO, Pt/GZO, and GZO/Pt/GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 203-207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheong, H. G.

H. G. Cheong, D. W. Song, and J. W. Park, “Transparent film heaters with highly enhanced thermal efficiency using silver nanowires and metal/metal-oxide blankets,” Microelectron. Eng. 146, 11-18 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W. S.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. I.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. H.

K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chun, K. Y.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faÿ, S.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
[Crossref]

Girtan, M.

M. Girtan, “Comparison of ITO/metal/ITO and ZnO/metal/ZnO characteristics as transparent electrodes for third generation solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 153-161 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giusti, G.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Granqvist, C. G.

C. G. Granqvist, “Solar energy materials,” Advanced Materials 15, 1789-1803 (2003).
[Crossref]

Han, C. H.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, C. S.

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. H.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. P.

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeong, D. J.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, U.

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jian, X.

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ju, B. K.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamei, M.

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

Kim, B. S.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. I.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. J.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

Y. S. Park and H. K. Kim, “Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28, 41-47 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Kim, J. Y.

K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. R.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ko, E. H.

E. H. Ko et al., “Nano-sized Ag inserted into ITO film prepared by continuous roll to roll sputtering for high performance, flexible, transparent film heaters,” RCS Advances 6, 46634 (2016).

Langley, D.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. S.

K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Y.

Y. C. Lin, J. Y. Li, and W. T. Yen, “Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science 254, 2362-3268 (2008).

Li, T.

X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. C.

Y. C. Lin, J. Y. Li, and W. T. Yen, “Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science 254, 2362-3268 (2008).

Lu, D. X.

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mayousse, C.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Mont, F. W.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Nicolay, S.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. K.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ow-Yang, C. W.

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Paine, D. C.

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J. K.

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, J. W.

H. G. Cheong, D. W. Song, and J. W. Park, “Transparent film heaters with highly enhanced thermal efficiency using silver nanowires and metal/metal-oxide blankets,” Microelectron. Eng. 146, 11-18 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, N. M.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park et al., “Roll to roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications,” Scientific Reports 6, 33868 (2016).

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park and H. K. Kim, “Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28, 41-47 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pei, Q.

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poxson, D. J.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Schubert, E. F.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Schubert, M. F.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Shigesato, Y.

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shin, J. H.

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

Simonato, J. P.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Song, D. W.

H. G. Cheong, D. W. Song, and J. W. Park, “Transparent film heaters with highly enhanced thermal efficiency using silver nanowires and metal/metal-oxide blankets,” Microelectron. Eng. 146, 11-18 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, J. H.

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, J. W.

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, K. H.

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, P. K.

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Steinhauser, J.

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ting, J. M.

C. H. Cheng and J. M. Ting, “Transparent conducting GZO, Pt/GZO, and GZO/Pt/GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 203-207 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. S.

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woo, J. I.

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Yang, J. W.

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yasui, I.

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yen, W. T.

Y. C. Lin, J. Y. Li, and W. T. Yen, “Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science 254, 2362-3268 (2008).

Yoon, Y. H.

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T. S.

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Advanced Materials (2)

C. G. Granqvist, “Solar energy materials,” Advanced Materials 15, 1789-1803 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Yoon, J. W. Song, D. Kim, J. Kim, J. K. Park, S. K. Oh, and C. S. Han, “Transparent film heater using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 19, 4284-4287 (2007).
[Crossref]

Applied Surface Science (2)

X. Ding, J. Yan, T. Li, and L. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature,” Applied Surface Science 258, 3082-3085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, J. Y. Li, and W. T. Yen, “Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science 254, 2362-3268 (2008).

Carbon (1)

D. J. Kim, L. Zhu, D. J. Jeong, K. Y. Chun, Y. Y. Bang, S. R. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. K. Oh, and C. H. Han, “Transparent flexible heater based on hybrid of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires,” Carbon 63, 530-536 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. (1)

S. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Woo, K. H. Song, and P. K. Song, “Influence of the tin concentration in indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for touch panels,” J. Nanoeletron. Optoe. 9, 1-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

C. H. Hong, J. H. Shin, B. K. Ju, K. H. Kim, N. M. Park, B. S. Kim, and W. S. Cheong, “Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 7756-7759 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

Y. S. Park and H. K. Kim, “Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28, 41-47 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. K. Song, H. Akao, M. Kamei, Y. Shigesato, and I. Yasui, “Crystallization of tin-doped and undoped amorphous indium oxide films deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5224-5226 (1999).

P. K. Song, Y. Shigesato, I. Yasui, C. W. Ow-Yang, and D. C. Paine, “Study on crystallinity of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1870-1876 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120203 (2009).

Macromol. Mater. Eng. (1)

J. Li, J. Liang, X. Jian, W. Hu, J. Li, and Q. Pei, “A flexible and transparent thin film heater based on a silver nanowire/heat-resistant polymer composite,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 299, 1403-1409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. G. Cheong, D. W. Song, and J. W. Park, “Transparent film heaters with highly enhanced thermal efficiency using silver nanowires and metal/metal-oxide blankets,” Microelectron. Eng. 146, 11-18 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24, 452001 (2013).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Y. Lee, J. W. Yang, J. H. Chae, J. H. Park, J. I. Choi, H. J. Park, and D. I. Kim, “Dependence of intermediated noble metals on the optical and electrical properties of ITO/metal/ITO multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2362-2366 (2009).
[Crossref]

RCS Advances (1)

E. H. Ko et al., “Nano-sized Ag inserted into ITO film prepared by continuous roll to roll sputtering for high performance, flexible, transparent film heaters,” RCS Advances 6, 46634 (2016).

Scientific Reports (1)

S. H. Park et al., “Roll to roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications,” Scientific Reports 6, 33868 (2016).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

M. Girtan, “Comparison of ITO/metal/ITO and ZnO/metal/ZnO characteristics as transparent electrodes for third generation solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 153-161 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (5)

H. G. Cheong, J. H. Kim, J. H. Song, U. Jeong, and J. W. Park, “Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides,” Thin Solid Films 589, 633-641 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Cheng and J. M. Ting, “Transparent conducting GZO, Pt/GZO, and GZO/Pt/GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 203-207 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer films for the application of a very low resistance transparent electrode,” Thin Solid Films 341, 152-155 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Faÿ, J. Steinhauser, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, “Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2961-2966 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. P. Huang, Z. S. Wang, J. Xu, D. X. Lu, T. S. Yuan, ”Determination of optical constants of functional layer of online Low-E glass based on the Drude theory,” Thin Solid Films 516, 3179-3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.