Abstract

We present a polarization-dependent prism array film for controlling the viewing angle distribution of liquid crystal (LC) display panels without loss of light efficiency. On a directional backlight unit, our polarization-dependent prism array film, made into a stacked bilayer with a well-aligned liquid crystalline reactive mesogen (RM) layer on the UV-imprinted prism structure, can continuously control the light refraction function of the prism array by electrically switching incident polarization states of a polarization-controlling layer prepared by a twisted nematic LC mode. The viewing angle control properties of the polarization-dependent prism array film are analyzed under different prism angle and refractive index conditions of the RM layer. A simple analytic model is also presented to describe the intermediate viewing angle distributions with continuously varying applied voltages and incident polarization states.

© 2016 Optical Society of Korea

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    [Crossref]
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  11. I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).
  12. B.-H. Park and Y.-H. Lee, “Characterization of IPS-LCD by reduced one-dimensional model,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 168-173 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  17. M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable Viewing-Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 705-708.
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  20. E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.
  24. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).
  25. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).
  26. M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).
  27. Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).
  29. J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).
  30. J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663-2669 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).
  33. K.-B. Son, M. Kim, M.-K. Park, and H.-R. Kim, “Polarization-dependent microlens array using reactive mesogen aligned by top-down nanogrooves for switchable three-dimensional applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19, 265-271 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. SID 20, 133-142 (2012).

2015 (2)

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16, 1-10 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-B. Son, M. Kim, M.-K. Park, and H.-R. Kim, “Polarization-dependent microlens array using reactive mesogen aligned by top-down nanogrooves for switchable three-dimensional applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19, 265-271 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. I. Park, S.-W. Choi, K. H. Kim, D. H. Song, Y. R. Shim, S. Y. Lee, S. G. Kang, J. H. Yoon, B. K. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field-switching liquid crystal cell with a protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 200-204 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. M. Wu, Y. D. Chen, C. W. Chou, and H. W. Chien, “Low temperature nanocomposite alignment films for optically compensated bend liquid crystal displays,” Thin Solid Films 544, 576-579 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, S.-W. Choi, D. H. Song, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “High-transmittance multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal device with protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 166-169 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. SID 20, 133-142 (2012).

2011 (1)

B.-H. Park and Y.-H. Lee, “Characterization of IPS-LCD by reduced one-dimensional model,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 168-173 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17, 10298-10303 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fabrication of monolithic integrated fiber-lens connector arrays by deep proton irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 062401 (2009).

2008 (6)

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663-2669 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

2007 (3)

J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).

C. P. Chen, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal design of omni-directional viewing angle switching panel,” Opt. Express 15, 17937-17947 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

2004 (1)

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

1999 (2)

M. Yoenya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 803-805 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. D. Hoke, H. Mori, and P. J. Bos, “Optical compensation of liquid crystal materials using negative birefringence compensation films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L642 (1999).

1995 (2)

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Optimum dark-state voltage for wide-viewing-angle optically-compensated-bend-mode liquid-crystal-displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362-L1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable Viewing-Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 705-708.

Ahn, B. C.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

Baek, J.-I

J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baik, I.-S.

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Bhattacharyya, S. S.

Bos, P. J.

C. D. Hoke, H. Mori, and P. J. Bos, “Optical compensation of liquid crystal materials using negative birefringence compensation films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L642 (1999).

Chen, C. P.

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fabrication of monolithic integrated fiber-lens connector arrays by deep proton irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 062401 (2009).

C. P. Chen, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal design of omni-directional viewing angle switching panel,” Opt. Express 15, 17937-17947 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-M.

K.-W. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 1425-1427.

Chen, Y. D.

G. M. Wu, Y. D. Chen, C. W. Chou, and H. W. Chien, “Low temperature nanocomposite alignment films for optically compensated bend liquid crystal displays,” Thin Solid Films 544, 576-579 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chida, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Chien, H. W.

G. M. Wu, Y. D. Chen, C. W. Chou, and H. W. Chien, “Low temperature nanocomposite alignment films for optically compensated bend liquid crystal displays,” Thin Solid Films 544, 576-579 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chien, K.-W.

K.-W. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 1425-1427.

Chin, M. H.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

Choi, H. C.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

Choi, S.-W.

Chou, C. W.

G. M. Wu, Y. D. Chen, C. W. Chou, and H. W. Chien, “Low temperature nanocomposite alignment films for optically compensated bend liquid crystal displays,” Thin Solid Films 544, 576-579 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujikawa, T.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Gwag, J. S.

Her, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hoke, C. D.

C. D. Hoke, H. Mori, and P. J. Bos, “Optical compensation of liquid crystal materials using negative birefringence compensation films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L642 (1999).

Hsu, Y.-J.

K.-W. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 1425-1427.

Inoue, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Iwasaki, K.

M. Yoenya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 803-805 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jang, W.-G.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

Jeon, E.-Y.

Jeong, E.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

Jeong, Y. H.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

Jhun, C. G.

Ji, S.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

Ji, S. H.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

Jo, S. I.

Käläntär, K.

K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. SID 20, 133-142 (2012).

Kang, S. G.

Kang, S.-W.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Kang, W.-S.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Kataoka, S.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Kim, A.-K.

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16, 1-10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. K.

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. I. Park, S.-W. Choi, K. H. Kim, D. H. Song, Y. R. Shim, S. Y. Lee, S. G. Kang, J. H. Yoon, B. K. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field-switching liquid crystal cell with a protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 200-204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Kim, D. S.

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Kim, H.

Kim, H. S.

Kim, H.-R.

K.-B. Son, M. Kim, M.-K. Park, and H.-R. Kim, “Polarization-dependent microlens array using reactive mesogen aligned by top-down nanogrooves for switchable three-dimensional applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19, 265-271 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fabrication of monolithic integrated fiber-lens connector arrays by deep proton irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 062401 (2009).

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663-2669 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. P. Chen, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal design of omni-directional viewing angle switching panel,” Opt. Express 15, 17937-17947 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).

Kim, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, K. H.

S. I. Park, S.-W. Choi, K. H. Kim, D. H. Song, Y. R. Shim, S. Y. Lee, S. G. Kang, J. H. Yoon, B. K. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field-switching liquid crystal cell with a protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 200-204 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

Kim, K.-H.

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, S.-W. Choi, D. H. Song, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “High-transmittance multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal device with protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 166-169 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fabrication of monolithic integrated fiber-lens connector arrays by deep proton irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 062401 (2009).

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

K.-B. Son, M. Kim, M.-K. Park, and H.-R. Kim, “Polarization-dependent microlens array using reactive mesogen aligned by top-down nanogrooves for switchable three-dimensional applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19, 265-271 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Kim, M.-E.

Kim, S. N.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

Kim, T. M.

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Kim, W. Y.

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Kim, Y. S.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

Kim, Y.-K.

Koike, Y.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Kondo, K.

M. Yoenya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 803-805 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kumagawa, K.

K. Kumagawa, A. Takimoto, and H. Wakemoto, “Fast response OCB-LCD for TV applications,” in Proc. SID’02 (Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA, USA, May 2002), vol. 33, pp. 1288-1291.

Kuo, C.-L.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Optimum dark-state voltage for wide-viewing-angle optically-compensated-bend-mode liquid-crystal-displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362-L1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.-H.

J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).

Lee, D.-J.

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-D.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

Lee, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

Lee, S. H

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

Lee, S. H.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

Lee, S. R.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

Lee, Y.-H.

B.-H. Park and Y.-H. Lee, “Characterization of IPS-LCD by reduced one-dimensional model,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 168-173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Lim, Y. J.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

Miyashita, T.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Optimum dark-state voltage for wide-viewing-angle optically-compensated-bend-mode liquid-crystal-displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362-L1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mori, H.

C. D. Hoke, H. Mori, and P. J. Bos, “Optical compensation of liquid crystal materials using negative birefringence compensation films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L642 (1999).

Nakanishi, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Oh, S.-W.

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16, 1-10 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ohmuro, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Okamoto, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Park, B. W.

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16, 1-10 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, S.-W. Choi, D. H. Song, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “High-transmittance multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal device with protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 166-169 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, B.-H.

B.-H. Park and Y.-H. Lee, “Characterization of IPS-LCD by reduced one-dimensional model,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 168-173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-S.

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, S. S. Bhattacharyya, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display with high transmittance,” Opt. Express 18, 6824-6830 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

Park, M.-K.

K.-B. Son, M. Kim, M.-K. Park, and H.-R. Kim, “Polarization-dependent microlens array using reactive mesogen aligned by top-down nanogrooves for switchable three-dimensional applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19, 265-271 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S. B.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

Park, S. I.

Rhee, J. M.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

Sasabayashi, T.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Sasaki, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Shim, Y. R.

Shimura, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable Viewing-Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 705-708.

Shin, K.-C.

Soh, H.-S.

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Son, K.-B.

Song, D. H.

Song, I. S.

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

Song, J. K.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

Souk, J. H.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

Srivastava, A. K.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

Sukenori, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Suzuki, M.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Optimum dark-state voltage for wide-viewing-angle optically-compensated-bend-mode liquid-crystal-displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362-L1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Takeda, A.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Takimoto, A.

K. Kumagawa, A. Takimoto, and H. Wakemoto, “Fast response OCB-LCD for TV applications,” in Proc. SID’02 (Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA, USA, May 2002), vol. 33, pp. 1288-1291.

Tasaka, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Tomioka, Y.

M. Yoenya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 803-805 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

Uchida, T.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Optimum dark-state voltage for wide-viewing-angle optically-compensated-bend-mode liquid-crystal-displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362-L1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wakemoto, H.

K. Kumagawa, A. Takimoto, and H. Wakemoto, “Fast response OCB-LCD for TV applications,” in Proc. SID’02 (Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA, USA, May 2002), vol. 33, pp. 1288-1291.

Wu, G. M.

G. M. Wu, Y. D. Chen, C. W. Chou, and H. W. Chien, “Low temperature nanocomposite alignment films for optically compensated bend liquid crystal displays,” Thin Solid Films 544, 576-579 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Yoenya, M.

M. Yoenya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 803-805 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J. H.

Yoon, S.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

Yoon, T.-H.

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16, 1-10 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. I. Park, S.-W. Choi, K. H. Kim, D. H. Song, Y. R. Shim, S. Y. Lee, S. G. Kang, J. H. Yoon, B. K. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field-switching liquid crystal cell with a protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 200-204 (2013).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, S.-W. Choi, D. H. Song, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “High-transmittance multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal device with protrusion structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 166-169 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fabrication of monolithic integrated fiber-lens connector arrays by deep proton irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 062401 (2009).

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663-2669 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).

C. P. Chen, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal design of omni-directional viewing angle switching panel,” Opt. Express 15, 17937-17947 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

Yu, C.-J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Yoenya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 803-805 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).

J.-I Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2007).

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ji, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park, H. C. Choi, and B. C. Ahn, “Viewing-angle controllable liquid crystal display using a fringe-and vertical-field driven hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261102 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033108 (2008).

J. Inf. Disp. (2)

I. S. Song, I.-S. Baik, T. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Study on electro optic characteristics of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display using transparent electrode,” J. Inf. Disp. 5, 18-24 (2004).

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16, 1-10 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Kore (1)

B.-H. Park and Y.-H. Lee, “Characterization of IPS-LCD by reduced one-dimensional model,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 168-173 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (3)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Her, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, W.-S. Kang, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 085501 (2010).

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G.-D. Lee, and S. H Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085110 (2008).

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S.-W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S.-T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 145502 (2010).

J. SID (1)

K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. SID 20, 133-142 (2012).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, S. R. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control of a fringe-field switching cell by electrical tilting of liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1615-1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Optimum dark-state voltage for wide-viewing-angle optically-compensated-bend-mode liquid-crystal-displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362-L1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. D. Hoke, H. Mori, and P. J. Bos, “Optical compensation of liquid crystal materials using negative birefringence compensation films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L642 (1999).

C. P. Chen, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fabrication of monolithic integrated fiber-lens connector arrays by deep proton irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 062401 (2009).

Liq. Cryst. (1)

M.-K. Park, S.-W. Oh, J.-S. Park, D.-J. Lee, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Mixed-field-switching liquid crystal mode using in-plane and fringe fields self-adjusted by bottom floating electrode for transmittance enhancement,” Liq. Cryst. 41, 908-919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W.-G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 186-193 (2008).

Opt. Express (4)

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. M. Wu, Y. D. Chen, C. W. Chou, and H. W. Chien, “Low temperature nanocomposite alignment films for optically compensated bend liquid crystal displays,” Thin Solid Films 544, 576-579 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

K. Kumagawa, A. Takimoto, and H. Wakemoto, “Fast response OCB-LCD for TV applications,” in Proc. SID’02 (Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA, USA, May 2002), vol. 33, pp. 1288-1291.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proc. Asia Display’98 (Sheraton Walker-Hill, Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1998), vol. 98, pp. 383-386.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Proc. SID’98 (Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA, USA, May 1998), vol. 29, pp. 1077-1080.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, and T. Fujikawa, “Fast- switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” in Proc. SID’00 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2000), vol. 31, pp. 334-337.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable Viewing-Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 705-708.

K.-W. Chien, Y.-J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs,” in Proc. SID’06 (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jun. 2006), vol. 37, pp. 1425-1427.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, J. M. Rhee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing Angle Switching in Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display by Optimizing Pixel Structure and Controlling LC Orientation,” in Proc. SID’07 (Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2007), vol. 38, pp. 756-759.

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