Abstract

A new optical one-time password (OTP) authentication method using digital holography is proposed, which enhances security strength in the authentication system. A challenge-response optical OTP algorithm based on two-factor authentication is presented using two-step phase-shifting digital holography, and two-way authentication is also performed using challenge-response handshake in both directions. Identification (ID), password (PW), and OTP are encrypted with a shared key by applying phase-shifting digital holography, and these encrypted pieces of information are verified by each party by means of the shared key. The encrypted digital holograms are obtained by Fourier-transform holography and are recorded on a CCD with 256 quantized gray-level intensities. Because the intensity pattern of such an encrypted digital hologram is distributed randomly, it guards against a replay attack and results in higher security level. The proposed method has advantages, in that it does not require a time-synchronized OTP, and can be applied to various authentication applications. Computer experiments show that the proposed method is feasible for high-security OTP authentication.

© 2016 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. D. McDonald, R. Atkinson, and Craig Mets, “One-time passwords in everything (OPIE): Experiences with building and using stronger authentication,” in Proc. the 5th USENIX Security Symposium (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Jun. 1995), vol. 5 pp. 16-16.
  2. B. Schneider, “Two-factor authentication: too little, too late,” ACM Commun. 48, 136 (2005).
  3. B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Encrypted holographic data storage based on orthogonal-phase-code multiplexing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6012-6015 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20, 767-769 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Javidi, A. Sergent, and E. Ahouzi, “Performance of double phase encoding encryption technique using binarized encrypted images,” Opt. Eng. 37, 565-569 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Weber and J. Trolinger, “Novel implementation of nonlinear joint transform correlators in optical security and validation,” Opt. Eng. 38, 62-68 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, “Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2853-2859 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Arizaga and R. Torroba, “Validation through a binary key code and a polarization sensitive digital technique,” Opt. Comm. 215, 31-36 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by means of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 28-30 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).
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    [Crossref]
  14. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 610-612 (1998).
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    [Crossref]
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  18. S. H. Jeon, Y. G. Hwang, and S. K. Gil, “Optical encryption of gray-level image using on-axis and 2-f digital holography with two-step phase-shifting method,” Opt. Rev. 15, 181-186 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil, “QPSK modulation based optical image cryptosystem using phase-shifting digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14, 97-103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil, “2-step phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption and error analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 244-251 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. K. Gil, “2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption using orthogonal polarization and error analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 354-364 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. Jeong, “Security enhanced optical one-time password authentication method by using digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 9386, 93860U (2015).

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

S. H. Jeon, Y. G. Hwang, and S. K. Gil, “Optical encryption of gray-level image using on-axis and 2-f digital holography with two-step phase-shifting method,” Opt. Rev. 15, 181-186 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).

B. Schneider, “Two-factor authentication: too little, too late,” ACM Commun. 48, 136 (2005).

2003 (2)

G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Arizaga and R. Torroba, “Validation through a binary key code and a polarization sensitive digital technique,” Opt. Comm. 215, 31-36 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by means of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 28-30 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, “Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2853-2859 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, “Novel implementation of nonlinear joint transform correlators in optical security and validation,” Opt. Eng. 38, 62-68 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, and E. Ahouzi, “Performance of double phase encoding encryption technique using binarized encrypted images,” Opt. Eng. 37, 565-569 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 610-612 (1998).

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Ahouzi, E.

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, and E. Ahouzi, “Performance of double phase encoding encryption technique using binarized encrypted images,” Opt. Eng. 37, 565-569 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arizaga, R.

R. Arizaga and R. Torroba, “Validation through a binary key code and a polarization sensitive digital technique,” Opt. Comm. 215, 31-36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

D. McDonald, R. Atkinson, and Craig Mets, “One-time passwords in everything (OPIE): Experiences with building and using stronger authentication,” in Proc. the 5th USENIX Security Symposium (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Jun. 1995), vol. 5 pp. 16-16.

Bashaw, M. C.

Byun, H. J.

S. K. Gil, H. J. Byun, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeon, and  J. R. Jeong, “Optical encryption of binary data information with 2-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6488, 648812 (2007).

Chang, H. T.

G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-J.

Chuang, C.-H.

G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gil, S. K.

S. K. Gil, “2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption using orthogonal polarization and error analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 354-364 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil, “2-step phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption and error analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 244-251 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil, “QPSK modulation based optical image cryptosystem using phase-shifting digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14, 97-103 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon, Y. G. Hwang, and S. K. Gil, “Optical encryption of gray-level image using on-axis and 2-f digital holography with two-step phase-shifting method,” Opt. Rev. 15, 181-186 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. K. Gil, H. J. Byun, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeon, and  J. R. Jeong, “Optical encryption of binary data information with 2-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6488, 648812 (2007).

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, N. Kim, and J. R. Jeong, “Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6136, 339-346 (2006).

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. Jeong, “Security enhanced optical one-time password authentication method by using digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 9386, 93860U (2015).

Hariharan, P.

Heanue, J. F.

Hesselink, L.

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hwang, Y. G.

S. H. Jeon, Y. G. Hwang, and S. K. Gil, “Optical encryption of gray-level image using on-axis and 2-f digital holography with two-step phase-shifting method,” Opt. Rev. 15, 181-186 (2008).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by means of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 28-30 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, and E. Ahouzi, “Performance of double phase encoding encryption technique using binarized encrypted images,” Opt. Eng. 37, 565-569 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20, 767-769 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. H.

S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil, “2-step phase-shifting digital holographic optical encryption and error analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 244-251 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon and S. K. Gil, “QPSK modulation based optical image cryptosystem using phase-shifting digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14, 97-103 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon, Y. G. Hwang, and S. K. Gil, “Optical encryption of gray-level image using on-axis and 2-f digital holography with two-step phase-shifting method,” Opt. Rev. 15, 181-186 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. K. Gil, H. J. Byun, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeon, and  J. R. Jeong, “Optical encryption of binary data information with 2-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6488, 648812 (2007).

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, N. Kim, and J. R. Jeong, “Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6136, 339-346 (2006).

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. Jeong, “Security enhanced optical one-time password authentication method by using digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 9386, 93860U (2015).

Jeong, J. R.

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. Jeong, “Security enhanced optical one-time password authentication method by using digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 9386, 93860U (2015).

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, N. Kim, and J. R. Jeong, “Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6136, 339-346 (2006).

S. K. Gil, H. J. Byun, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeon, and  J. R. Jeong, “Optical encryption of binary data information with 2-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6488, 648812 (2007).

Jhou, G.-S.

Kameda, M.

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).

Kim, N.

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, N. Kim, and J. R. Jeong, “Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6136, 339-346 (2006).

Lee, H. J.

S. K. Gil, H. J. Byun, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeon, and  J. R. Jeong, “Optical encryption of binary data information with 2-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6488, 648812 (2007).

Lie, W.-N.

G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, G-S.

G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-P.

McDonald, D.

D. McDonald, R. Atkinson, and Craig Mets, “One-time passwords in everything (OPIE): Experiences with building and using stronger authentication,” in Proc. the 5th USENIX Security Symposium (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Jun. 1995), vol. 5 pp. 16-16.

Mets, Craig

D. McDonald, R. Atkinson, and Craig Mets, “One-time passwords in everything (OPIE): Experiences with building and using stronger authentication,” in Proc. the 5th USENIX Security Symposium (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Jun. 1995), vol. 5 pp. 16-16.

Morimoto, Y.

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).

Nomura, T.

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by means of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 28-30 (2000).
[Crossref]

Okazaki, A.

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).

Poon, T.-C.

Refregier, P.

Schneider, B.

B. Schneider, “Two-factor authentication: too little, too late,” ACM Commun. 48, 136 (2005).

Sergent, A.

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, and E. Ahouzi, “Performance of double phase encoding encryption technique using binarized encrypted images,” Opt. Eng. 37, 565-569 (1998).
[Crossref]

Singh, K.

G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, “Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2853-2859 (2000).
[Crossref]

Torroba, R.

R. Arizaga and R. Torroba, “Validation through a binary key code and a polarization sensitive digital technique,” Opt. Comm. 215, 31-36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trolinger, J.

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, “Novel implementation of nonlinear joint transform correlators in optical security and validation,” Opt. Eng. 38, 62-68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Unnikrishnan, G.

G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, “Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2853-2859 (2000).
[Crossref]

Weber, D.

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, “Novel implementation of nonlinear joint transform correlators in optical security and validation,” Opt. Eng. 38, 62-68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 610-612 (1998).

Zhang, T.

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 610-612 (1998).

ACM Commun. (1)

B. Schneider, “Two-factor authentication: too little, too late,” ACM Commun. 48, 136 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (3)

Opt. Comm. (1)

R. Arizaga and R. Torroba, “Validation through a binary key code and a polarization sensitive digital technique,” Opt. Comm. 215, 31-36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (6)

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, and Y. Morimoto, “Image reconstruction from compressed encrypted digital hologram,” Opt. Eng. 44, 2313-2320 (2005).

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, and E. Ahouzi, “Performance of double phase encoding encryption technique using binarized encrypted images,” Opt. Eng. 37, 565-569 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Weber and J. Trolinger, “Novel implementation of nonlinear joint transform correlators in optical security and validation,” Opt. Eng. 38, 62-68 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, “Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2853-2859 (2000).
[Crossref]

G-S. Lin, H. T. Chang, W.-N. Lie, and C.-H. Chuang, “Public-key-based optical image cryptosystem based on data embedding techniques,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2331-2339 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. H. Jeon, Y. G. Hwang, and S. K. Gil, “Optical encryption of gray-level image using on-axis and 2-f digital holography with two-step phase-shifting method,” Opt. Rev. 15, 181-186 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, and J. R. Jeong, “Security enhanced optical one-time password authentication method by using digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 9386, 93860U (2015).

S. K. Gil, S. H. Jeon, N. Kim, and J. R. Jeong, “Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6136, 339-346 (2006).

S. K. Gil, H. J. Byun, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeon, and  J. R. Jeong, “Optical encryption of binary data information with 2-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Proc. SPIE 6488, 648812 (2007).

D. McDonald, R. Atkinson, and Craig Mets, “One-time passwords in everything (OPIE): Experiences with building and using stronger authentication,” in Proc. the 5th USENIX Security Symposium (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Jun. 1995), vol. 5 pp. 16-16.

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