Abstract

Up-converted phase noise, which is induced by the low-frequency relative intensity noise (RIN) of a laser through AM-PM conversion within a photodetector (PD), is first measured here by means of a cross-correlation method. Our proposed measurement system can isolate the RIN-induced phase noise from noise contributions of other components, such as amplifiers, modulators, and mixers. In particular, shot noise and thermal noise generated from the PD are also suppressed by this method, so that standalone characteristics of the RIN-induced phase noise can be obtained. Experimental results clearly show the quantitative relationship between the RIN-induced phase noise and the incident optical power of the PD. Our findings indicate that the least RIN-induced phase noise appeared at the saturation point of the PD, which is about -162 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset.

© 2016 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. C. H. Cox, Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006).
  2. M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, “Microwave phase retardation in saturated InGaAs photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Eliyahu, D.Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 449-456 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Zhang, T. D. Ni, A. S. Daryoush, “Laser induced phase noise in optically injection locked oscillator,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Albuquerque, NM, USA, Jun. 1992), pp. 765-768.
  8. R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, “Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Excess amplitude and excess phase noise of RF photodiodes operated in compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 654-656 (2005).
  12. D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Phase noise in compressed RF photodiodes,” in Proc. IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Oct. 2004), pp. 269-272.
  13. E. Rubiola and F. Vernotte, “The cross-spectrum experimental method,” arXiv:1003.0113 [physics.ins-det], Feb. 27 (2010).

2012 (1)

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Eliyahu, D.Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 449-456 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, “Microwave phase retardation in saturated InGaAs photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Excess amplitude and excess phase noise of RF photodiodes operated in compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 654-656 (2005).

1999 (1)

M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, “Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bibey, M. B.

M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cox, C. H.

C. H. Cox, Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006).

Currie, M.

M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, “Microwave phase retardation in saturated InGaAs photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dagenais, M.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
[Crossref]

Daryoush, A. S.

X. Zhang, T. D. Ni, A. S. Daryoush, “Laser induced phase noise in optically injection locked oscillator,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Albuquerque, NM, USA, Jun. 1992), pp. 765-768.

Datta, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deborgies, F.

M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

D. Eliyahu, D.Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 449-456 (2008).
[Crossref]

Esman, R. D.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hati, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hayes, R. R.

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, “Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[Crossref]

Joshi, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krakowski, M.

M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
[Crossref]

Le Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lours, M.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

D. Eliyahu, D.Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 449-456 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mongardien, D.

M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nelson, C.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ni, T. D.

X. Zhang, T. D. Ni, A. S. Daryoush, “Laser induced phase noise in optically injection locked oscillator,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Albuquerque, NM, USA, Jun. 1992), pp. 765-768.

Persechini, D. L.

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, “Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, F.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Rubiola and F. Vernotte, “The cross-spectrum experimental method,” arXiv:1003.0113 [physics.ins-det], Feb. 27 (2010).

Salik, E.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

D. Eliyahu, D.Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 449-456 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seidelin, S.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tulchinsky, D. A.

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Excess amplitude and excess phase noise of RF photodiodes operated in compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 654-656 (2005).

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Phase noise in compressed RF photodiodes,” in Proc. IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Oct. 2004), pp. 269-272.

Vernotte, F.

E. Rubiola and F. Vernotte, “The cross-spectrum experimental method,” arXiv:1003.0113 [physics.ins-det], Feb. 27 (2010).

Vurgaftman, I.

M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, “Microwave phase retardation in saturated InGaAs photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Excess amplitude and excess phase noise of RF photodiodes operated in compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 654-656 (2005).

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Phase noise in compressed RF photodiodes,” in Proc. IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Oct. 2004), pp. 269-272.

Yu, N.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, T. D. Ni, A. S. Daryoush, “Laser induced phase noise in optically injection locked oscillator,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Albuquerque, NM, USA, Jun. 1992), pp. 765-768.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 301-308 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 140-151 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, “Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, “Microwave phase retardation in saturated InGaAs photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Excess amplitude and excess phase noise of RF photodiodes operated in compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 654-656 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (3)

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 816-820 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D.Seidel, and L. Maleki, “RF amplitude and phase-noise reduction of an optical link and an opto-electronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 449-456 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. B. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, and D. Mongardien, “Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 47, 2257-2262 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

X. Zhang, T. D. Ni, A. S. Daryoush, “Laser induced phase noise in optically injection locked oscillator,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Albuquerque, NM, USA, Jun. 1992), pp. 765-768.

C. H. Cox, Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006).

D. A. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, “Phase noise in compressed RF photodiodes,” in Proc. IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Oct. 2004), pp. 269-272.

E. Rubiola and F. Vernotte, “The cross-spectrum experimental method,” arXiv:1003.0113 [physics.ins-det], Feb. 27 (2010).

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