Abstract

The standard high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) protocol utilizes duplicated frame copies of each sent frame for zero fail over time. This means that even in cases of a node or link failure, the destination node will receive at least one copy of the sent frame, resulting in no network downtime. However, the standard HSR is mostly based on the electrical signal connection inside the node, which leads to the production of considerable latency at each node due to frame processing. Therefore, in a large scale HSR ring network, the accumulated latencies become significant and can often restrict the mission-critical real-time application of HSR. In this paper, we present a novel design for optical HSR (OHSR) that uses beam splitting/combining techniques. The proposed OHSR passes the frames directly to adjacent nodes without frame processing at each node, thereby theoretically generating no latency in any node. Various simulations for network samples, made to validate the OHSR design and its performance, show that the OHSR outperforms the standard HSR.

© 2016 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. M. Tornatore and G. Maier, “Availability Design of Optical Transport Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1520-1532 (2005).
  2. IEC 62439-3:2016 International Electrotechnical Commission. Industrial Communication Networks-High-available Automation Networks, Part: 3 Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) and High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR), (2016).
  3. N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.
  4. D. H. Lee, P. H. Anh, and J. M. RHEE, “SAFE: A Scalable Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Ethernet Scheme for Large-Scale Star Networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 10, 3158-3167 (2012).
  5. O. Kleineberg, P. Frohlich, and D. Heffernan, “Fault-tolerant Ethernet Networks with Audio and Video Bridging,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (Capitole Univ., France, Sep. 2011), pp. 1-8.
  6. J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.
  7. H. Kirrmann and O. Kleineberg, “Seamless and Low-cost Redundancy for Substation Automation Systems (High availability Seamless Redundancy, HSR),” in Proc. 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (Renaissance Center, Detroit, MI, USA, Jul., 2011) pp. 1-7.
  8. IEC 61850-90-4, Network Engineering Guideline for Communication Networks and System in Substation, 2013.
  9. N. S. Allawi and J. M. Rhee, “Improvement of High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) Traffic Performance for Smart Grid Communications,” Journal of Communications and Networks 14, 653-661 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Nilsson, Real-Time Control Systems with Delays (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1998), Chapter 5.
  11. J. Yamauchi, S. Kobori, and H. Nakano, “Analysis of Y-branch Polarization Splitter Using the Full-Vectorial Beam-Propagation Method,” in Proc. 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications (Cubrovnik, Croatia, Oct. 2003), pp. 71-74.
  12. A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).
  13. D. Birdi and M. Singh, “A Survey on EDFA Amplifier for DWDM System,” Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 4, 20-23, (2015).
  14. RP Photonics Encyclopedia accessed 6/7/2016. https://www.rp-photonics.com/fiber_couplers.html.
  15. A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and M. I. Hayee, “Major Accomplishments in 2010 on Optical Fiber Communications,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 320-324 (2011).
  16. M. Robert and R. David, “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks,” Journal of the ACM 19, 395-404 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Ramaswamy, N. Weng, and T. Wolf, ”Characterizing Network Processing Delay,” in Proc. 47th annual IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Reunion Hotel, Texas, USA, Nov. 2004) pp. 1629-1634.
  18. OMNET++ v.4.2.2 Simulator. Available online: http://www.omnetpp.org/ (accessed on 7 June 2016).

2015 (1)

D. Birdi and M. Singh, “A Survey on EDFA Amplifier for DWDM System,” Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 4, 20-23, (2015).

2012 (2)

D. H. Lee, P. H. Anh, and J. M. RHEE, “SAFE: A Scalable Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Ethernet Scheme for Large-Scale Star Networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 10, 3158-3167 (2012).

N. S. Allawi and J. M. Rhee, “Improvement of High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) Traffic Performance for Smart Grid Communications,” Journal of Communications and Networks 14, 653-661 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and M. I. Hayee, “Major Accomplishments in 2010 on Optical Fiber Communications,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 320-324 (2011).

2005 (1)

M. Tornatore and G. Maier, “Availability Design of Optical Transport Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1520-1532 (2005).

1976 (1)

M. Robert and R. David, “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks,” Journal of the ACM 19, 395-404 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, H.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

AL-Khateeb, W. F.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Allawi, N. S.

N. S. Allawi and J. M. Rhee, “Improvement of High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) Traffic Performance for Smart Grid Communications,” Journal of Communications and Networks 14, 653-661 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anh, P. H.

D. H. Lee, P. H. Anh, and J. M. RHEE, “SAFE: A Scalable Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Ethernet Scheme for Large-Scale Star Networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 10, 3158-3167 (2012).

Araujo, J. A.

J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.

Astarloa, A.

J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.

Birdi, D.

D. Birdi and M. Singh, “A Survey on EDFA Amplifier for DWDM System,” Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 4, 20-23, (2015).

Cheng, X. S.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

David, R.

M. Robert and R. David, “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks,” Journal of the ACM 19, 395-404 (1976).
[Crossref]

Dung, N. H.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Frohlich, P.

O. Kleineberg, P. Frohlich, and D. Heffernan, “Fault-tolerant Ethernet Networks with Audio and Video Bridging,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (Capitole Univ., France, Sep. 2011), pp. 1-8.

Garcia, A.

J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.

Hamida, B. A.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Harun, S.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Hayee, M. I.

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and M. I. Hayee, “Major Accomplishments in 2010 on Optical Fiber Communications,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 320-324 (2011).

Heffernan, D.

O. Kleineberg, P. Frohlich, and D. Heffernan, “Fault-tolerant Ethernet Networks with Audio and Video Bridging,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (Capitole Univ., France, Sep. 2011), pp. 1-8.

Jeongryul, H.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Khan, S.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Kirrmann, H.

H. Kirrmann and O. Kleineberg, “Seamless and Low-cost Redundancy for Substation Automation Systems (High availability Seamless Redundancy, HSR),” in Proc. 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (Renaissance Center, Detroit, MI, USA, Jul., 2011) pp. 1-7.

Kleineberg, O.

H. Kirrmann and O. Kleineberg, “Seamless and Low-cost Redundancy for Substation Automation Systems (High availability Seamless Redundancy, HSR),” in Proc. 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (Renaissance Center, Detroit, MI, USA, Jul., 2011) pp. 1-7.

O. Kleineberg, P. Frohlich, and D. Heffernan, “Fault-tolerant Ethernet Networks with Audio and Video Bridging,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (Capitole Univ., France, Sep. 2011), pp. 1-8.

Kobori, S.

J. Yamauchi, S. Kobori, and H. Nakano, “Analysis of Y-branch Polarization Splitter Using the Full-Vectorial Beam-Propagation Method,” in Proc. 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications (Cubrovnik, Croatia, Oct. 2003), pp. 71-74.

Lazaro, J.

J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.

Lee, D. H.

D. H. Lee, P. H. Anh, and J. M. RHEE, “SAFE: A Scalable Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Ethernet Scheme for Large-Scale Star Networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 10, 3158-3167 (2012).

Mahdi, M. A.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Maier, G.

M. Tornatore and G. Maier, “Availability Design of Optical Transport Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1520-1532 (2005).

Naji, A. W.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Nakano, H.

J. Yamauchi, S. Kobori, and H. Nakano, “Analysis of Y-branch Polarization Splitter Using the Full-Vectorial Beam-Propagation Method,” in Proc. 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications (Cubrovnik, Croatia, Oct. 2003), pp. 71-74.

Namho, L.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, Real-Time Control Systems with Delays (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1998), Chapter 5.

Pan, Z.

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and M. I. Hayee, “Major Accomplishments in 2010 on Optical Fiber Communications,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 320-324 (2011).

Ramaswamy, R.

R. Ramaswamy, N. Weng, and T. Wolf, ”Characterizing Network Processing Delay,” in Proc. 47th annual IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Reunion Hotel, Texas, USA, Nov. 2004) pp. 1629-1634.

Rhee, J. M.

N. S. Allawi and J. M. Rhee, “Improvement of High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) Traffic Performance for Smart Grid Communications,” Journal of Communications and Networks 14, 653-661 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. H. Lee, P. H. Anh, and J. M. RHEE, “SAFE: A Scalable Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Ethernet Scheme for Large-Scale Star Networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 10, 3158-3167 (2012).

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Robert, M.

M. Robert and R. David, “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks,” Journal of the ACM 19, 395-404 (1976).
[Crossref]

Sik, Y. H.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Singh, M.

D. Birdi and M. Singh, “A Survey on EDFA Amplifier for DWDM System,” Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 4, 20-23, (2015).

Tornatore, M.

M. Tornatore and G. Maier, “Availability Design of Optical Transport Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1520-1532 (2005).

Weng, N.

R. Ramaswamy, N. Weng, and T. Wolf, ”Characterizing Network Processing Delay,” in Proc. 47th annual IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Reunion Hotel, Texas, USA, Nov. 2004) pp. 1629-1634.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and M. I. Hayee, “Major Accomplishments in 2010 on Optical Fiber Communications,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 320-324 (2011).

Wolf, T.

R. Ramaswamy, N. Weng, and T. Wolf, ”Characterizing Network Processing Delay,” in Proc. 47th annual IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Reunion Hotel, Texas, USA, Nov. 2004) pp. 1629-1634.

Wook, H. D.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Yamauchi, J.

J. Yamauchi, S. Kobori, and H. Nakano, “Analysis of Y-branch Polarization Splitter Using the Full-Vectorial Beam-Propagation Method,” in Proc. 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications (Cubrovnik, Croatia, Oct. 2003), pp. 71-74.

Yongho, A.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Youjin, L.

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

Zaidan, A. A.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Zaidan, B. B.

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Zuloaga, A.

J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Tornatore and G. Maier, “Availability Design of Optical Transport Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1520-1532 (2005).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and M. I. Hayee, “Major Accomplishments in 2010 on Optical Fiber Communications,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 320-324 (2011).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. H. Lee, P. H. Anh, and J. M. RHEE, “SAFE: A Scalable Autonomous Fault-Tolerant Ethernet Scheme for Large-Scale Star Networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 10, 3158-3167 (2012).

Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (1)

D. Birdi and M. Singh, “A Survey on EDFA Amplifier for DWDM System,” Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 4, 20-23, (2015).

Journal of Communications and Networks (1)

N. S. Allawi and J. M. Rhee, “Improvement of High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) Traffic Performance for Smart Grid Communications,” Journal of Communications and Networks 14, 653-661 (2012).
[Crossref]

Journal of the ACM (1)

M. Robert and R. David, “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks,” Journal of the ACM 19, 395-404 (1976).
[Crossref]

Journal of the Physical Sciences (1)

A. W. Naji, B. A. Hamida, X. S. Cheng, M. A. Mahdi, S. Harun, S. Khan, W. F. AL-Khateeb, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, and H. Ahmed, “Review of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier,” Journal of the Physical Sciences 6, 4674-4689, (2011).

Other (11)

RP Photonics Encyclopedia accessed 6/7/2016. https://www.rp-photonics.com/fiber_couplers.html.

R. Ramaswamy, N. Weng, and T. Wolf, ”Characterizing Network Processing Delay,” in Proc. 47th annual IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Reunion Hotel, Texas, USA, Nov. 2004) pp. 1629-1634.

OMNET++ v.4.2.2 Simulator. Available online: http://www.omnetpp.org/ (accessed on 7 June 2016).

J. Nilsson, Real-Time Control Systems with Delays (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1998), Chapter 5.

J. Yamauchi, S. Kobori, and H. Nakano, “Analysis of Y-branch Polarization Splitter Using the Full-Vectorial Beam-Propagation Method,” in Proc. 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications (Cubrovnik, Croatia, Oct. 2003), pp. 71-74.

IEC 62439-3:2016 International Electrotechnical Commission. Industrial Communication Networks-High-available Automation Networks, Part: 3 Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) and High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR), (2016).

N. H. Dung, Y. H. Sik, H. D. Wook, J. M. Rhee, A. Yongho, H. Jeongryul, L. Youjin, and L. Namho, “An Improved High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) for Dependable Substation Automation System,” in Proc. 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Phoenix Park, Korea, Feb. 2014), pp. 921-927.

O. Kleineberg, P. Frohlich, and D. Heffernan, “Fault-tolerant Ethernet Networks with Audio and Video Bridging,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (Capitole Univ., France, Sep. 2011), pp. 1-8.

J. A. Araujo, J. Lazaro, A. Astarloa, A. Zuloaga, and A. Garcia, “High Availability Automation Networks: PRP and HSR Ring Implementations,” in Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Tianyuan Tower Hotel, Hangzhou, China, May, 2012), pp. 1197-1202.

H. Kirrmann and O. Kleineberg, “Seamless and Low-cost Redundancy for Substation Automation Systems (High availability Seamless Redundancy, HSR),” in Proc. 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (Renaissance Center, Detroit, MI, USA, Jul., 2011) pp. 1-7.

IEC 61850-90-4, Network Engineering Guideline for Communication Networks and System in Substation, 2013.

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