Abstract

Based on the escape cone concepts, high-brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been analyzed. In AlGaAs or InGaAlP LEDs, photon absorption in the ohmic region under the electrode is known to be significant. Thus, ins general, a thick window layer (WL) and a transparent substrate (TS) would minimize photon shielding by the electrodes and considerably improve photon output coupling efficiency. However, the schemes do not seem to be necessary in InGaN system. Photon absorption in ohmic contact to a wide bandgap semiconductor such as GaN may be negligible and, as a result, the significant photon shielding by the electrodes will not degrade the photon output coupling efficiency so much. The photon output coupling efficiency estimated in InGaN LEDs is about 2.5 - 2.8 times that of the conventional high-brightness LED structures based on both WL and TS schemes. As a result, the extenal quantum efficiency in InGaN LEDs is as high as 9% despite the presumably very low internal quantum efficiency.

© 1998 Optical Society of Korea

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, Japan. J. Appl. Pyhs. Lett. 34, L1332 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, L797 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakmura and G. Fasol, "The blue laser diode - GaN based light emitters and lasers", (Springer, Berlin, 1997)
  6. R. Fletcher, C. Kuo, T. Osentowski, J. Yu, and V. Robbins, Hewlett-Packard J. 6 (1993)
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    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 131 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. M. Born and E. Wolf, "Principles of optics," (Perga-mon, Oxford, 1975)
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Willliams, "Gallium arsenide processing tech-niques," (Artech Houuse, Dedham, 1984)

1997 (3)

S. Nakmura and G. Fasol, "The blue laser diode - GaN based light emitters and lasers", (Springer, Berlin, 1997)

S. Lee, Japan. J. Appl. Phys., 31, in printing (1997)

S. Lee, submitted to Electron. Lett. (1997)

1996 (1)

F. Kishi, D. Vanderwater, D. DeFevere, D. Steiger-wald, G. Hofler, K. Park, and F. Steranka, Electron. Lett. 32, 132 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868 (1995)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, Japan. J. Appl. Pyhs. Lett. 34, L1332 (1995)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, L797 (1995)
[CrossRef]

D. Eason, Z. Yu, W. Hughes, W. Roland, C. Boney, J. Cook, J. Schetzina, G. Cantwell, and W. Harsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 115 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994)
[CrossRef]

F. Kishi, F. Steranka, D. DeFevere, D. Vanderwater, K. Park, C. Kuo, T. Osentowski, M. Peanasky, J. Fletcher, D. Steigerwald, and M. Craford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839 (1994)
[CrossRef]

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. Gao, M. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1363 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 131 (1993)
[CrossRef]

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993)
[CrossRef]

R. Fletcher, C. Kuo, T. Osentowski, J. Yu, and V. Robbins, Hewlett-Packard J. 6 (1993)

1992 (2)

K. Huang, J. Yu, C. Kuo, R. Fletcher, T. Osentowski, L. Stinson, M. Craford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045 (1992)
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Jacoboni and P. Lugli, "The Monte Carlo method for semiconductor device simulation," (Springer, New York, 1989)

1984 (1)

R. Willliams, "Gallium arsenide processing tech-niques," (Artech Houuse, Dedham, 1984)

1975 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, "Principles of optics," (Perga-mon, Oxford, 1975)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Huang, J. Yu, C. Kuo, R. Fletcher, T. Osentowski, L. Stinson, M. Craford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045 (1992)
[CrossRef]

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 131 (1993)
[CrossRef]

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174 (1993)
[CrossRef]

F. Kishi, F. Steranka, D. DeFevere, D. Vanderwater, K. Park, C. Kuo, T. Osentowski, M. Peanasky, J. Fletcher, D. Steigerwald, and M. Craford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839 (1994)
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775 (1992)
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010 (1991)
[CrossRef]

D. Eason, Z. Yu, W. Hughes, W. Roland, C. Boney, J. Cook, J. Schetzina, G. Cantwell, and W. Harsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 115 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters (2)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

F. Kishi, D. Vanderwater, D. DeFevere, D. Steiger-wald, G. Hofler, K. Park, and F. Steranka, Electron. Lett. 32, 132 (1996)
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, submitted to Electron. Lett. (1997)

Hewlett-Packard J. (1)

R. Fletcher, C. Kuo, T. Osentowski, J. Yu, and V. Robbins, Hewlett-Packard J. 6 (1993)

Japan. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Lee, Japan. J. Appl. Phys., 31, in printing (1997)

Journal of Applied Physics (1)

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. Gao, M. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1363 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, Japan. J. Appl. Pyhs. Lett. 34, L1332 (1995)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, L797 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Nakmura and G. Fasol, "The blue laser diode - GaN based light emitters and lasers", (Springer, Berlin, 1997)

R. Willliams, "Gallium arsenide processing tech-niques," (Artech Houuse, Dedham, 1984)

C. Jacoboni and P. Lugli, "The Monte Carlo method for semiconductor device simulation," (Springer, New York, 1989)

M. Born and E. Wolf, "Principles of optics," (Perga-mon, Oxford, 1975)

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