Abstract

In this work, we report detailed numerical analysis of the near-elliptic core index-guiding triangular-lattice and square-lattice photonic crystal fiber (PCFs); where we numerically characterize the birefringence, single mode, cut-off behavior and group velocity dispersion and effective area properties. By varying geometry and examining the modal field profile we find that for the same relative values of <TEX>$d/{\Lambda}$</TEX>, triangular-lattice PCFs show higher birefringence whereas the square-lattice PCFs show a wider range of single-mode operation. Square-lattice PCF was found to be endlessly single-mode for higher air-filling fraction (<TEX>$d/{\Lambda}$</TEX>). Dispersion comparison between the two structures reveal that we need smaller lengths of triangular-lattice PCF for dispersion compensation whereas PCFs with square-lattice with nearer relative dispersion slope (RDS) can better compensate the broadband dispersion. Square-lattice PCFs show zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) red-shifted, making it preferable for mid-IR supercontinuum generation (SCG) with highly non-linear chalcogenide material. Square-lattice PCFs show higher dispersion slope that leads to compression of the broadband, thus accumulating more power in the pulse. On the other hand, triangular-lattice PCF with flat dispersion profile can generate broader SCG. Square-lattice PCF with low Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD) at the anomalous dispersion corresponds to higher dispersion length (<TEX>$L_D$</TEX>) and higher degree of solitonic interaction. The effective area of square-lattice PCF is always greater than its triangular-lattice counterpart making it better suited for high power applications. We have also performed a comparison of the dispersion properties of between the symmetric-core and asymmetric-core triangular-lattice PCF. While we need smaller length of symmetric-core PCF for dispersion compensation, broadband dispersion compensation can be performed with asymmetric-core PCF. Mid-Infrared (IR) SCG can be better performed with asymmetric core PCF with compressed and high power pulse, while wider range of SCG can be performed with symmetric core PCF. Thus, this study will be extremely useful for designing/realizing fiber towards a custom application around these characteristics.

© 2014 Optical Society of Korea

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