A binary-coupled dipole approximation (BCDA) is described for designing metal nanoparticles with nonperiodic structures in one, two, and three dimensions. This method can be used to simulate the variation of near- and far-field properties through the interactions of metal nanoparticles. An advantage of this method is in its combination with the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm to find the best array of nanoparticles from all possible arrays. The BPSO algorithm has been used to design an array of plasmonic nanospheres to achieve maximum absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficient spectra. In BPSO, a swarm consists of a matrix with binary entries controlling the presence ('1') or the absence ('0') of nanospheres in the array. This approach is useful in optical applications such as solar cells, biosensors, and plasmonic nanoantennae, and optical cloaking.
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