We study the focusing properties of a two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal (PC) comprising silica and germanium partitioned cylinders in air background. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with periodic boundary condition is utilized to calculate the dispersion band diagram and the FDTD method incorporating the perfectly matched layer boundary condition is employed to simulate the image formation. In contrast to the common square PCs in which the negative refraction effect occurs in the first photonic band without negative phase propagation, in our suggested model system, the frequency with negative refraction exists in the second band and in near-infrared region. In this case, the wave propagates with a negative phase velocity and the evanescent waves can be supported. We also discuss the dependency of the image resolution and its location on surface termination, source location, and slab thickness. According to the simulation results, spatial resolution of the proposed PC lens is below the radiation wavelength.

© 2013 Optical Society of Korea

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