Abstract

Lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer patients. We report THz imaging for detecting micro-metastatic foci in the lymph nodes of early-stage uterine cervical cancer patients. Five paraffin-embedded metastatic lymph nodes from two cervical cancer patients were imaged using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system in the reflection mode. The size and shape of the tumor regions were compared with those from histopathologic examinations. The metastatic portions of lymph nodes as small as 3 mm were well delineated by THz imaging. The reflected peak amplitudes were lower in metastatic portions than in the normal portions of lymph nodes, and the difference in their peak-to-peak amplitudes was ~5%.

© 2011 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000," Int. J. Cancer 94, 153-156 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Juretzka, K. C. Jensen, T. A. Longacre, N. N. Teng, and A. Husain, "Detection of pelvic lymph node micrometastasis in stage IA2-IB2 cervical cancer by immunohistochemical analysis," Gynecol. Oncol. 93, 107-111 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Marchiole, A. Buenerd, M. Benchaib, K. Nezhat, D. Dargent, and P. Mathevet, "Clinical significance of lympho vascular space involvement and lymph node micrometastases in early-stage cervical cancer: a retrospective case-control surgico-pathological study," Gynecol. Oncol. 97, 727-732 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Takeshima, K. Yanoh, T. Tabata, K. Nagai, Y. Hirai, and K. Hasumi, "Assessment of the revised international federation of gynecology and obstetrics staging for early invasive squamous cervical cancer," Gynecol. Oncol. 74, 165-169 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Tanaka, S. Sawada, and T. Murata, "Relationship between lymph node metastases and prognosis in patients irradiated postoperatively for carcinoma of the uterine cervix," Acta Radiol. Oncol. 23, 455-459 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S. S. Seo, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S. Y. Park, "Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study," Cancer 106, 914-922 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, "Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography," AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177, 343-348 (2001).
  8. H. H. Chou, T. C. Chang, T. C. Yen, K. K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S. Y. Ma, C. J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T. I. Wu, S. M. Jung, Y. C. Wu, C. T. Lin, K. G. Huang, and C. H. Lai, "Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 123-128 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. van Nagell Jr., J. W. Roddick Jr., and D. M. Lowin, "The staging of cervical cancer: inevitable discrepancies between clinical staging and pathologic findinges," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 110, 973-978 (1971).
  10. J. Scheidler, H. Hricak, K. K. Yu, L. Subak, and M. R. Segal, "Radiological evaluation of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis," JAMA 278, 1096-1101 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer," Opt Express 17, 12444-12454 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo," Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Enatsu, H. Kitahara, K. Takano, and T. Nagashima, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of paraffin-embedded liver cancer samples," in Proc. Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Electronics (Cardiff, UK, Sept. 2007), pp. 557-558.
  15. A. D. King, G. M. Tse, A. T. Ahuja, E. H. Yuen, A. C. Vlantis, E. W. To, and A. C. van Hasselt, "Necrosis in metastatic neck nodes: diagnostic accuracy of CT, MR imaging, and US," Radiology 230, 720-726 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. W. van den Brekel, H. V. Stel, J. A. Castelijns, J. J. Nauta, I. van der Waal, J. Valk, C. J. Meyer, and G. B. Snow, "Cervical lymph node metastasis: assessment of radiologic criteria," Radiology 177, 379-384 (1990).
  17. M. G. Mack, J. Rieger, M. Baghi, S. Bisdas, and T. J. Vogl, "Cervical lymph nodes," Eur. J. Radiol. 66, 493-500 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. J. Choi, S. H. Kim, S. S. Seo, S. Kang, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, H. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, and S. Y. Park, "MRI for pretreatment lymph node staging in uterine cervical cancer," AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 187, W538-543 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. J. Choi, W. Ju, S. K. Myung, and Y. Kim, "Diagnostic performance of computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/computer tomography for detection of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: meta-analysis," Cancer Sci. 101, 1471-1479 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Hricak, C. Gatsonis, D. S. Chi, M. A. Amendola, K. Brandt, L. H. Schwartz, S. Koelliker, E. S. Siegelman, J. J. Brown, R. B. McGhee, Jr., R. Iyer, K. M. Vitellas, B. Snyder, H. J. Long 3rd, J. V. Fiorica, and D. G. Mitchell, "Role of imaging in pretreatment evaluation of early invasive cervical cancer: results of the intergroup study American college of radiology imaging network 6651-gynecologic oncology group 183," J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 9329-9337 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. Blauenstein, J. Missimer, P. A. Schubiger, J. T. Locher, R. Pellikka, and S. M. Ametamey, "Measurement of the extracellular space in brain tumors using 76Br-bromide and PET," J. Nucl. Med. 44, 1210-1218 (2003).
  22. J. H. Chen, H. E. Avram, L. E. Crooks, M. Arakawa, L. Kaufman, and A. C. Brito, "In vivo relaxation times and hydrogen density at 0.063-4.85 T in rats with implanted mammary adenocarcinomas," Radiology 184, 427-434 (1992).
  23. K. F. Ross and R. E. Gordon, "Water in malignant tissue, measured by cell refractometry and nuclear magnetic resonance," J. Microsc. 128, 7-21 (1982).
  24. P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, "Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Loffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, "Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3847-3852 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov"ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology," Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. J. Choi, W. Ju, S. K. Myung, and Y. Kim, "Diagnostic performance of computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/computer tomography for detection of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: meta-analysis," Cancer Sci. 101, 1471-1479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer," Opt Express 17, 12444-12454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. G. Mack, J. Rieger, M. Baghi, S. Bisdas, and T. J. Vogl, "Cervical lymph nodes," Eur. J. Radiol. 66, 493-500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Enatsu, H. Kitahara, K. Takano, and T. Nagashima, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of paraffin-embedded liver cancer samples," in Proc. Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Electronics (Cardiff, UK, Sept. 2007), pp. 557-558.

2006 (4)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S. S. Seo, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S. Y. Park, "Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study," Cancer 106, 914-922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Chou, T. C. Chang, T. C. Yen, K. K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S. Y. Ma, C. J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T. I. Wu, S. M. Jung, Y. C. Wu, C. T. Lin, K. G. Huang, and C. H. Lai, "Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 123-128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Choi, S. H. Kim, S. S. Seo, S. Kang, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, H. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, and S. Y. Park, "MRI for pretreatment lymph node staging in uterine cervical cancer," AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 187, W538-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. Marchiole, A. Buenerd, M. Benchaib, K. Nezhat, D. Dargent, and P. Mathevet, "Clinical significance of lympho vascular space involvement and lymph node micrometastases in early-stage cervical cancer: a retrospective case-control surgico-pathological study," Gynecol. Oncol. 97, 727-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hricak, C. Gatsonis, D. S. Chi, M. A. Amendola, K. Brandt, L. H. Schwartz, S. Koelliker, E. S. Siegelman, J. J. Brown, R. B. McGhee, Jr., R. Iyer, K. M. Vitellas, B. Snyder, H. J. Long 3rd, J. V. Fiorica, and D. G. Mitchell, "Role of imaging in pretreatment evaluation of early invasive cervical cancer: results of the intergroup study American college of radiology imaging network 6651-gynecologic oncology group 183," J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 9329-9337 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo," Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. King, G. M. Tse, A. T. Ahuja, E. H. Yuen, A. C. Vlantis, E. W. To, and A. C. van Hasselt, "Necrosis in metastatic neck nodes: diagnostic accuracy of CT, MR imaging, and US," Radiology 230, 720-726 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Juretzka, K. C. Jensen, T. A. Longacre, N. N. Teng, and A. Husain, "Detection of pelvic lymph node micrometastasis in stage IA2-IB2 cervical cancer by immunohistochemical analysis," Gynecol. Oncol. 93, 107-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov"ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology," Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. Blauenstein, J. Missimer, P. A. Schubiger, J. T. Locher, R. Pellikka, and S. M. Ametamey, "Measurement of the extracellular space in brain tumors using 76Br-bromide and PET," J. Nucl. Med. 44, 1210-1218 (2003).

2002 (2)

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, "Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Loffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, "Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3847-3852 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000," Int. J. Cancer 94, 153-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, "Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography," AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177, 343-348 (2001).

1999 (1)

N. Takeshima, K. Yanoh, T. Tabata, K. Nagai, Y. Hirai, and K. Hasumi, "Assessment of the revised international federation of gynecology and obstetrics staging for early invasive squamous cervical cancer," Gynecol. Oncol. 74, 165-169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Scheidler, H. Hricak, K. K. Yu, L. Subak, and M. R. Segal, "Radiological evaluation of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis," JAMA 278, 1096-1101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. H. Chen, H. E. Avram, L. E. Crooks, M. Arakawa, L. Kaufman, and A. C. Brito, "In vivo relaxation times and hydrogen density at 0.063-4.85 T in rats with implanted mammary adenocarcinomas," Radiology 184, 427-434 (1992).

1990 (1)

M. W. van den Brekel, H. V. Stel, J. A. Castelijns, J. J. Nauta, I. van der Waal, J. Valk, C. J. Meyer, and G. B. Snow, "Cervical lymph node metastasis: assessment of radiologic criteria," Radiology 177, 379-384 (1990).

1984 (1)

Y. Tanaka, S. Sawada, and T. Murata, "Relationship between lymph node metastases and prognosis in patients irradiated postoperatively for carcinoma of the uterine cervix," Acta Radiol. Oncol. 23, 455-459 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. F. Ross and R. E. Gordon, "Water in malignant tissue, measured by cell refractometry and nuclear magnetic resonance," J. Microsc. 128, 7-21 (1982).

1971 (1)

J. R. van Nagell Jr., J. W. Roddick Jr., and D. M. Lowin, "The staging of cervical cancer: inevitable discrepancies between clinical staging and pathologic findinges," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 110, 973-978 (1971).

Acta Radiol. Oncol. (1)

Y. Tanaka, S. Sawada, and T. Murata, "Relationship between lymph node metastases and prognosis in patients irradiated postoperatively for carcinoma of the uterine cervix," Acta Radiol. Oncol. 23, 455-459 (1984).
[CrossRef]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. (2)

A. D. Williams, C. Cousins, W. P. Soutter, M. Mubashar, A. M. Peters, R. Dina, F. Fuchsel, G. A. McIndoe, and N. M. deSouza, "Detection of pelvic lymph node metastases in gynecologic malignancy: a comparison of CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography," AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 177, 343-348 (2001).

H. J. Choi, S. H. Kim, S. S. Seo, S. Kang, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, H. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, and S. Y. Park, "MRI for pretreatment lymph node staging in uterine cervical cancer," AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 187, W538-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

J. R. van Nagell Jr., J. W. Roddick Jr., and D. M. Lowin, "The staging of cervical cancer: inevitable discrepancies between clinical staging and pathologic findinges," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 110, 973-978 (1971).

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo," Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cancer (1)

H. J. Choi, J. W. Roh, S. S. Seo, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, K. W. Kang, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, and S. Y. Park, "Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma: a prospective study," Cancer 106, 914-922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Sci. (1)

H. J. Choi, W. Ju, S. K. Myung, and Y. Kim, "Diagnostic performance of computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/computer tomography for detection of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: meta-analysis," Cancer Sci. 101, 1471-1479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

M. G. Mack, J. Rieger, M. Baghi, S. Bisdas, and T. J. Vogl, "Cervical lymph nodes," Eur. J. Radiol. 66, 493-500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gynecol. Oncol. (3)

M. M. Juretzka, K. C. Jensen, T. A. Longacre, N. N. Teng, and A. Husain, "Detection of pelvic lymph node micrometastasis in stage IA2-IB2 cervical cancer by immunohistochemical analysis," Gynecol. Oncol. 93, 107-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Marchiole, A. Buenerd, M. Benchaib, K. Nezhat, D. Dargent, and P. Mathevet, "Clinical significance of lympho vascular space involvement and lymph node micrometastases in early-stage cervical cancer: a retrospective case-control surgico-pathological study," Gynecol. Oncol. 97, 727-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Takeshima, K. Yanoh, T. Tabata, K. Nagai, Y. Hirai, and K. Hasumi, "Assessment of the revised international federation of gynecology and obstetrics staging for early invasive squamous cervical cancer," Gynecol. Oncol. 74, 165-169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000," Int. J. Cancer 94, 153-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Oncol. (2)

H. H. Chou, T. C. Chang, T. C. Yen, K. K. Ng, S. Hsueh, S. Y. Ma, C. J. Chang, H. J. Huang, A. Chao, T. I. Wu, S. M. Jung, Y. C. Wu, C. T. Lin, K. G. Huang, and C. H. Lai, "Low value of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in primary staging of early-stage cervical cancer before radical hysterectomy," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 123-128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hricak, C. Gatsonis, D. S. Chi, M. A. Amendola, K. Brandt, L. H. Schwartz, S. Koelliker, E. S. Siegelman, J. J. Brown, R. B. McGhee, Jr., R. Iyer, K. M. Vitellas, B. Snyder, H. J. Long 3rd, J. V. Fiorica, and D. G. Mitchell, "Role of imaging in pretreatment evaluation of early invasive cervical cancer: results of the intergroup study American college of radiology imaging network 6651-gynecologic oncology group 183," J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 9329-9337 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

K. F. Ross and R. E. Gordon, "Water in malignant tissue, measured by cell refractometry and nuclear magnetic resonance," J. Microsc. 128, 7-21 (1982).

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

M. Bruehlmeier, U. Roelcke, P. Blauenstein, J. Missimer, P. A. Schubiger, J. T. Locher, R. Pellikka, and S. M. Ametamey, "Measurement of the extracellular space in brain tumors using 76Br-bromide and PET," J. Nucl. Med. 44, 1210-1218 (2003).

JAMA (1)

J. Scheidler, H. Hricak, K. K. Yu, L. Subak, and M. R. Segal, "Radiological evaluation of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis," JAMA 278, 1096-1101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov"ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology," Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt Express (1)

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer," Opt Express 17, 12444-12454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, "Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Loffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, "Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3847-3852 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Electronics (1)

T. Enatsu, H. Kitahara, K. Takano, and T. Nagashima, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of paraffin-embedded liver cancer samples," in Proc. Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Electronics (Cardiff, UK, Sept. 2007), pp. 557-558.

Radiology (4)

A. D. King, G. M. Tse, A. T. Ahuja, E. H. Yuen, A. C. Vlantis, E. W. To, and A. C. van Hasselt, "Necrosis in metastatic neck nodes: diagnostic accuracy of CT, MR imaging, and US," Radiology 230, 720-726 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. van den Brekel, H. V. Stel, J. A. Castelijns, J. J. Nauta, I. van der Waal, J. Valk, C. J. Meyer, and G. B. Snow, "Cervical lymph node metastasis: assessment of radiologic criteria," Radiology 177, 379-384 (1990).

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Chen, H. E. Avram, L. E. Crooks, M. Arakawa, L. Kaufman, and A. C. Brito, "In vivo relaxation times and hydrogen density at 0.063-4.85 T in rats with implanted mammary adenocarcinomas," Radiology 184, 427-434 (1992).

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