Abstract

Binocular-pair images obtained from two cameras can be used to calculate the three-dimensional (3D) world coordinate of a feature point. However, to apply this method, measurement accuracy of binocular vision depends on some structure factors. This paper presents an experimental study of measurement distance, baseline distance, and baseline direction. Their effects on camera reconstruction accuracy are investigated. The testing set for the binocular model consists of a series of feature points in stereo-pair images and corresponding 3D world coordinates. This paper discusses a method to increase the baseline distance of two cameras for enhancing the accuracy of a binocular vision system. Moreover, there is an inflexion point of the value and distribution of measurement errors when the baseline distance is increased. The accuracy benefit from increasing the baseline distance is not obvious, since the baseline distance exceeds 1000 mm in this experiment. Furthermore, it is observed that the direction errors deduced from the set-up are lower when the main measurement direction is similar to the baseline direction.

© 2011 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. G. I. Kwon and Y. H. Choi, “Image-processing basedpanoramic camera employing single fisheye lens,” J. Opt.Soc. Korea 14, 245-259 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. J. Tay, C. Quan, Y. H. Huang, and Y. Fu, “Digitalimage correlation for whole field out-of-plane displacementmeasurement using a single camera,” Opt. Comm. 251, 23-36(2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. J. Choi, J. H. Park, J. S. Hong, and B. Lee, “Animproved stereovision scheme using single camera and acomposite lens array,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 72-78 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. C. Kwon, J. K. Choi, and Y. S. Choi, “Automaticcontrol of horizontal-moving stereoscopic camera by disparitycompensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 150-155 (2002).
  5. Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garci, V. Mico, and Z.Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognitionand identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Comm. 283,4274-4282 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. C. Park, C. G. Park, M. H. Kang, and S. J. Ahn, “Ahigh-speed digital laser grating projection system for themeasurement of 3-dimensional shapes,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea13, 251-255 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. H. Shin and E. S. Kim, “Computational integral imagingreconstruction of 3D object using a depth conversiontechnique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 131-135 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. I. Abdel-Aziz and H. M. Karara, “Direct linear transformationinto object space coordinates in close-range photogrammetry,”in Proc. the Symposium on Close-range Photogrammetry(Falls Church, VA, USA, Jan. 1971), pp. 1-18.
  9. H. Hatze, “High-precision three-dimensional photogrammetriccalibration and object space reconstruction using a modifiedDLT-approach,” J. Biomech. 21, 533-538 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. B. Gennery, “Stereo-camera calibration,” in Proc. the10th Image Understanding Workshop (Menlo Park, CA,USA, Nov. 1979), pp 101-108.
  11. A. Isaguirre, P. Pu, and J. Summers, “A new developmentin camera calibration calibrating a pair of mobile cameras,”in Proc. International Conference on Robotics and Automation(St. Louis, MO, USA, Mar. 1985), pp. 74-79.
  12. S. Ganapathy, “Decomposition of transformation matricesfor robot vision,” in Proc. IEEE International Conferenceon Robotics and Automation (Atlanta, GA, USA, Mar.1984), pp. 130-139.
    [Crossref]
  13. O. D. Faugeras and G. Toscani, “The Calibration problemfor stereo,” in Proc. International Conference of ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition (Miami Beach, FL, USA,Jun. 1986), pp. 15-20.
  14. R. K. Len and R. Y. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration ofthe scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3Dmachine vision metrology,” in Proc. IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation (Raleigh, NC, USA,Mar. 1987), pp. 68-75.
  15. R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibrationtechnique for 3D machine vision,” in Proc. IEEE Conferenceon Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (MiamiBeach, FL, USA, Jun. 1986), pp. 364-374.
  16. R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibrationtechnique for 3D machine vision,” IEEE Trans. Robot 3,364-374 (1987).
  17. S. Tomas, M. Daniel, and P. Tomas, “A convenient multi-cameraself-calibration for virtual environments,” Teleoperatorsand Virtual Environments 14, 407-422 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Zhang, “Flexible camera calibration by viewing a planefrom unknown orientations,” in Proc. International Conferenceon Computer Vision (Kerkyra, Corfu, Greece, Sep. 1999),pp. 666-673.
  19. Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,”IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330-1334 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, “Marker tracking and HMDCalibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencingsystem,” in Proc. the Second IEEE and ACM InternationalWorkshop on Augmented Reality (San Francisco, CA, USA,Oct. 1999), pp. 85-95.
  21. K. C. Kwon, Y. T. Lim, N. Kim, Y. J. Song, and Y. S.Choi, “Vergence control of binocular stereoscopic camerausing disparity information,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 379-385(2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. Zhang, B. Xu, L. Tang, and H. Shi, “Modeling ofbinocular vision system for 3D reconstruction with improvedgenetic algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 722-728(2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Sun and J. R. Cooperstock, “An empirical evaluation offactors influencing camera calibration accuracy using threepublicly available techniques,” Mach. Vision Appl. 17, 51-67(2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. H. Cui, W. H. Liao, X. S. Cheng, N. Dai, and T. R. Yuan, “A three-step system calibration procedure with errorcompensation for 3D shape measurement,” Chinese Opt. Lett.8, 33-37 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Ricolfe-Viala and A. J. Sanchez-Salmeron, “Robustmetric calibration of non-linear camera lens distortion,” PatternRecognit. 43, 1688-1699 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. Z. W. Li, Y. S. Shi, C. J. Wang, D. H. Qin, and K.Huang, “Complex object 3D measurement based on phase-shiftingand a neural network,” Opt. Comm. 282, 2699-2706(2009).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. B. Guo, Y. Yao, and X. G. Di, “Research on structuralparameter optimization of binocular vision measuring systemfor parallel mechanism,” in Proc. IEEE International Conferenceon Mechatronics and Automation (Luoyang, China, Jun. 2006),pp. 1131-1135.

2010 (4)

G. I. Kwon and Y. H. Choi, “Image-processing basedpanoramic camera employing single fisheye lens,” J. Opt.Soc. Korea 14, 245-259 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garci, V. Mico, and Z.Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognitionand identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Comm. 283,4274-4282 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. H. Cui, W. H. Liao, X. S. Cheng, N. Dai, and T. R. Yuan, “A three-step system calibration procedure with errorcompensation for 3D shape measurement,” Chinese Opt. Lett.8, 33-37 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Ricolfe-Viala and A. J. Sanchez-Salmeron, “Robustmetric calibration of non-linear camera lens distortion,” PatternRecognit. 43, 1688-1699 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Z. W. Li, Y. S. Shi, C. J. Wang, D. H. Qin, and K.Huang, “Complex object 3D measurement based on phase-shiftingand a neural network,” Opt. Comm. 282, 2699-2706(2009).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kwon, Y. T. Lim, N. Kim, Y. J. Song, and Y. S.Choi, “Vergence control of binocular stereoscopic camerausing disparity information,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 379-385(2009).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Park, C. G. Park, M. H. Kang, and S. J. Ahn, “Ahigh-speed digital laser grating projection system for themeasurement of 3-dimensional shapes,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea13, 251-255 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. H. Shin and E. S. Kim, “Computational integral imagingreconstruction of 3D object using a depth conversiontechnique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 131-135 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

K. Zhang, B. Xu, L. Tang, and H. Shi, “Modeling ofbinocular vision system for 3D reconstruction with improvedgenetic algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 722-728(2006).
[Crossref]

W. Sun and J. R. Cooperstock, “An empirical evaluation offactors influencing camera calibration accuracy using threepublicly available techniques,” Mach. Vision Appl. 17, 51-67(2006).
[Crossref]

Y. B. Guo, Y. Yao, and X. G. Di, “Research on structuralparameter optimization of binocular vision measuring systemfor parallel mechanism,” in Proc. IEEE International Conferenceon Mechatronics and Automation (Luoyang, China, Jun. 2006),pp. 1131-1135.

2005 (2)

S. Tomas, M. Daniel, and P. Tomas, “A convenient multi-cameraself-calibration for virtual environments,” Teleoperatorsand Virtual Environments 14, 407-422 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, Y. H. Huang, and Y. Fu, “Digitalimage correlation for whole field out-of-plane displacementmeasurement using a single camera,” Opt. Comm. 251, 23-36(2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. J. Choi, J. H. Park, J. S. Hong, and B. Lee, “Animproved stereovision scheme using single camera and acomposite lens array,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 72-78 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. C. Kwon, J. K. Choi, and Y. S. Choi, “Automaticcontrol of horizontal-moving stereoscopic camera by disparitycompensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 150-155 (2002).

2000 (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,”IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330-1334 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, “Marker tracking and HMDCalibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencingsystem,” in Proc. the Second IEEE and ACM InternationalWorkshop on Augmented Reality (San Francisco, CA, USA,Oct. 1999), pp. 85-95.

Z. Zhang, “Flexible camera calibration by viewing a planefrom unknown orientations,” in Proc. International Conferenceon Computer Vision (Kerkyra, Corfu, Greece, Sep. 1999),pp. 666-673.

1988 (1)

H. Hatze, “High-precision three-dimensional photogrammetriccalibration and object space reconstruction using a modifiedDLT-approach,” J. Biomech. 21, 533-538 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

R. K. Len and R. Y. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration ofthe scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3Dmachine vision metrology,” in Proc. IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation (Raleigh, NC, USA,Mar. 1987), pp. 68-75.

R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibrationtechnique for 3D machine vision,” IEEE Trans. Robot 3,364-374 (1987).

1986 (2)

O. D. Faugeras and G. Toscani, “The Calibration problemfor stereo,” in Proc. International Conference of ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition (Miami Beach, FL, USA,Jun. 1986), pp. 15-20.

R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibrationtechnique for 3D machine vision,” in Proc. IEEE Conferenceon Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (MiamiBeach, FL, USA, Jun. 1986), pp. 364-374.

1985 (1)

A. Isaguirre, P. Pu, and J. Summers, “A new developmentin camera calibration calibrating a pair of mobile cameras,”in Proc. International Conference on Robotics and Automation(St. Louis, MO, USA, Mar. 1985), pp. 74-79.

1984 (1)

S. Ganapathy, “Decomposition of transformation matricesfor robot vision,” in Proc. IEEE International Conferenceon Robotics and Automation (Atlanta, GA, USA, Mar.1984), pp. 130-139.
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

D. B. Gennery, “Stereo-camera calibration,” in Proc. the10th Image Understanding Workshop (Menlo Park, CA,USA, Nov. 1979), pp 101-108.

1971 (1)

Y. I. Abdel-Aziz and H. M. Karara, “Direct linear transformationinto object space coordinates in close-range photogrammetry,”in Proc. the Symposium on Close-range Photogrammetry(Falls Church, VA, USA, Jan. 1971), pp. 1-18.

Chinese Opt. Lett. (1)

H. H. Cui, W. H. Liao, X. S. Cheng, N. Dai, and T. R. Yuan, “A three-step system calibration procedure with errorcompensation for 3D shape measurement,” Chinese Opt. Lett.8, 33-37 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,”IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330-1334 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Robot (1)

R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibrationtechnique for 3D machine vision,” IEEE Trans. Robot 3,364-374 (1987).

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

K. Zhang, B. Xu, L. Tang, and H. Shi, “Modeling ofbinocular vision system for 3D reconstruction with improvedgenetic algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 722-728(2006).
[Crossref]

J. Biomech. (1)

H. Hatze, “High-precision three-dimensional photogrammetriccalibration and object space reconstruction using a modifiedDLT-approach,” J. Biomech. 21, 533-538 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

K. C. Kwon, J. K. Choi, and Y. S. Choi, “Automaticcontrol of horizontal-moving stereoscopic camera by disparitycompensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 150-155 (2002).

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (5)

G. I. Kwon and Y. H. Choi, “Image-processing basedpanoramic camera employing single fisheye lens,” J. Opt.Soc. Korea 14, 245-259 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Park, C. G. Park, M. H. Kang, and S. J. Ahn, “Ahigh-speed digital laser grating projection system for themeasurement of 3-dimensional shapes,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea13, 251-255 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. H. Shin and E. S. Kim, “Computational integral imagingreconstruction of 3D object using a depth conversiontechnique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 131-135 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Choi, J. H. Park, J. S. Hong, and B. Lee, “Animproved stereovision scheme using single camera and acomposite lens array,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 72-78 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kwon, Y. T. Lim, N. Kim, Y. J. Song, and Y. S.Choi, “Vergence control of binocular stereoscopic camerausing disparity information,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 379-385(2009).
[Crossref]

Mach. Vision Appl. (1)

W. Sun and J. R. Cooperstock, “An empirical evaluation offactors influencing camera calibration accuracy using threepublicly available techniques,” Mach. Vision Appl. 17, 51-67(2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm. (3)

Z. W. Li, Y. S. Shi, C. J. Wang, D. H. Qin, and K.Huang, “Complex object 3D measurement based on phase-shiftingand a neural network,” Opt. Comm. 282, 2699-2706(2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, Y. H. Huang, and Y. Fu, “Digitalimage correlation for whole field out-of-plane displacementmeasurement using a single camera,” Opt. Comm. 251, 23-36(2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garci, V. Mico, and Z.Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognitionand identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Comm. 283,4274-4282 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pattern Recognit. (1)

C. Ricolfe-Viala and A. J. Sanchez-Salmeron, “Robustmetric calibration of non-linear camera lens distortion,” PatternRecognit. 43, 1688-1699 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)

R. Y. Tsai, “An efficient and accurate camera calibrationtechnique for 3D machine vision,” in Proc. IEEE Conferenceon Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (MiamiBeach, FL, USA, Jun. 1986), pp. 364-374.

Proc. IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (1)

Y. B. Guo, Y. Yao, and X. G. Di, “Research on structuralparameter optimization of binocular vision measuring systemfor parallel mechanism,” in Proc. IEEE International Conferenceon Mechatronics and Automation (Luoyang, China, Jun. 2006),pp. 1131-1135.

Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2)

R. K. Len and R. Y. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration ofthe scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3Dmachine vision metrology,” in Proc. IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation (Raleigh, NC, USA,Mar. 1987), pp. 68-75.

S. Ganapathy, “Decomposition of transformation matricesfor robot vision,” in Proc. IEEE International Conferenceon Robotics and Automation (Atlanta, GA, USA, Mar.1984), pp. 130-139.
[Crossref]

Proc. International Conference of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)

O. D. Faugeras and G. Toscani, “The Calibration problemfor stereo,” in Proc. International Conference of ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition (Miami Beach, FL, USA,Jun. 1986), pp. 15-20.

Proc. International Conference on Computer Vision (1)

Z. Zhang, “Flexible camera calibration by viewing a planefrom unknown orientations,” in Proc. International Conferenceon Computer Vision (Kerkyra, Corfu, Greece, Sep. 1999),pp. 666-673.

Proc. International Conference on Robotics and Automation (1)

A. Isaguirre, P. Pu, and J. Summers, “A new developmentin camera calibration calibrating a pair of mobile cameras,”in Proc. International Conference on Robotics and Automation(St. Louis, MO, USA, Mar. 1985), pp. 74-79.

Proc. the 10th Image Understanding Workshop (1)

D. B. Gennery, “Stereo-camera calibration,” in Proc. the10th Image Understanding Workshop (Menlo Park, CA,USA, Nov. 1979), pp 101-108.

Proc. the Second IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality (1)

H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, “Marker tracking and HMDCalibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencingsystem,” in Proc. the Second IEEE and ACM InternationalWorkshop on Augmented Reality (San Francisco, CA, USA,Oct. 1999), pp. 85-95.

Proc. the Symposium on Close-range Photogrammetry (1)

Y. I. Abdel-Aziz and H. M. Karara, “Direct linear transformationinto object space coordinates in close-range photogrammetry,”in Proc. the Symposium on Close-range Photogrammetry(Falls Church, VA, USA, Jan. 1971), pp. 1-18.

Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (1)

S. Tomas, M. Daniel, and P. Tomas, “A convenient multi-cameraself-calibration for virtual environments,” Teleoperatorsand Virtual Environments 14, 407-422 (2005).
[Crossref]

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