Abstract

A stack of gradient-index (GRIN) rod lenses cannot be used for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microendoscopy for insertion to internal organs through a surgical keyhole with minimal invasiveness. That's because GRIN lens has large amount of inherent chromatic aberrations in spite of absolutely requiring a common focus for pump and Stokes beam with each frequency of <TEX>${\omega}_p$</TEX> and <TEX>${\omega}_S$</TEX>. For this endoscopic purpose, we need to develop a long slender probe-type objective, namely probe-type microscope objective (PMO). In this paper, we introduce the structure, the working principle, and the design techniques of PMO which is composed of a probe-type lens module (PLM) and an adaptor lens module (ALM). PLM is first designed for a long slender type and ALM is successively designed by using several design parameters from PLM for eliminating optical discords between scanning unit and PLM. A combined module is optimized again to eliminate some coupling disparities between PLM and ALM for the best PMO. As a result, we can obtain a long slender PMO with perfectly diffraction-limited performance for pump beam of 817 nm and Stokes beam of 1064 nm.

© 2010 Optical Society of Korea

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