Abstract

Novel wafer-level fabrication of a glass ball-lens is realized for optoelectronic applications. A Pyrex wafer is bonded to a silicon wafer and cross-cut into a square-tile pattern, followed by wet-etching of the underlying silicon. Cubes of Pyrex on the undercut silicon are then turned into ball shapes by thermal reflow, and separated from the wafer by further etching of the silicon support. Radial variation and surface roughness are measured to be less than ±3 <i>µ</i>m and ±1 <i>µ</i>m, respectively, for ball diameter of about 500 <i>µ</i>m. A surface defect on the ball that is due to the silicon support is shown to be healed by using a silicon-optical-bench. Optical power-relay of the ball lens showed the maximum efficiency of 65% between two single-mode fibers on the silicon-optical-bench.

© 2010 Optical Society of Korea

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2009 (2)

J. Albero, L. Nieradko, C. Gorecki, H. Ottevaere, V. Gomez, H. Thienpont, J. Pietarinen, B. Päivänranta, and N. Passilly, “Fabrication of spherical microlenses by a combination of isotropic wet etching of silicon and molding techniques,” Opt. Exp. 17, 6283-6292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Cha, Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and H.-J. Kim, “Transcription characteristics of mold surface topography in the molding of aspherical glass lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 213-217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S.-K. Lee, M.-G. Kim, K.-W. Joo, S.-M. Shin, and J.-H. Lee, “A glass reflowed microlens array on a Si substrate with rectangular through-holes,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-7 (2008).

2007 (1)

L. Hao, S. Bangren, W. Jijiang, G. Lijun, and L. Aimei, “Fabrication of gradient refractive index ball lenses using the method of combination of ion exchanging and sagging,” Opt. Comm. 276, 310-316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Yamagata, F. Ishizaki, and K. Sugizaki, “Globular glass manufacturing apparatus and method for manufacturing the globular glass,” U.S. Patent 0132752 A1 (2005).

D. W. Sherrer, N. Brese, J. Fisher, C. Gaebe, N. A. Heiks, J. Getz, J. Rasnake, and E. S. Simon, “Wafer-level packaging technology for 10Gbps TOSAs,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Lake Buena Vista,FL, USA, May 2005), pp. 1325-1332.

2004 (3)

C.-T. Pan, C.-H. Chien, and C.-C. Hsieh, “Technique of microball lens formation for efficient optical coupling,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5939-5946 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Alexe and U. Gosele, Wafer Bonding, Application and Technology (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2004).

M. Bua, T. Melvin, G. J. Ensell, J. S. Wilkinson, and A. G. R. Evans, “A new masking technology for deep glass etching and its microfluidic application,” Sens. Actuators A 115, 476-482 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, C.-P. Lin, and S.-C. Shen, “Microball lens array modeling and fabrication using thermal reflow in two polymer layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 277-282 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, “Simple reflow technique for fabrication of a microlens array in solgel glass,” Opt. Lett. 28, 731-733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Merz, H. J. Quenzerl, H. Bemt, B. Wagner, and M. Zoberbier, “A novel micromachining technology for structuring borosilicate glass substrates,” in Proc. Transducers 03, The 12th International Conference on Solid Stale Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Boston, MA, USA, Jun. 2003), pp. 258-261.

1998 (2)

L.-S. Huang, S.-S. Lee, E. Motamedi, M. C. Wu, and C.-J. Kim, “MEMS packaging for micro mirror switches,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Seattle, WA, USA, May 1998), pp. 592-597.

J. Gates, D. Muehlner, M. Cappuzzo, M. Fishteyn, L. Gomez, G. Henein, E. Laskowski, I. Ryazansky, J. Shmulovich, D. Syvertsen, and A. White, “Hybrid integrated silicon optical bench planar lightguide circuits,” in Proc. ElectronicComponents and Technology Conference (Seattle, WA, USA, May 1998), pp. 551-559.

1997 (1)

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacomapplication,” IEEE Trans. on Components, Packaging, andManufacturing Technology B21, 7-15 (1997).

1995 (1)

F. Pigeon, B. Biasse, and M. Zussy, “Low-temperature Pyrex glass wafer direct bonding,” Electron. Lett. 31, 792-793 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1969 (1)

G. Wallis and D. I. Pomerantz, “Field assisted glass-metal sealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3946-3949 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Pigeon, B. Biasse, and M. Zussy, “Low-temperature Pyrex glass wafer direct bonding,” Electron. Lett. 31, 792-793 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology (1)

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacomapplication,” IEEE Trans. on Components, Packaging, andManufacturing Technology B21, 7-15 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Wallis and D. I. Pomerantz, “Field assisted glass-metal sealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3946-3949 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, C.-P. Lin, and S.-C. Shen, “Microball lens array modeling and fabrication using thermal reflow in two polymer layers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 277-282 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S.-K. Lee, M.-G. Kim, K.-W. Joo, S.-M. Shin, and J.-H. Lee, “A glass reflowed microlens array on a Si substrate with rectangular through-holes,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-7 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Opt. Comm. (1)

L. Hao, S. Bangren, W. Jijiang, G. Lijun, and L. Aimei, “Fabrication of gradient refractive index ball lenses using the method of combination of ion exchanging and sagging,” Opt. Comm. 276, 310-316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Albero, L. Nieradko, C. Gorecki, H. Ottevaere, V. Gomez, H. Thienpont, J. Pietarinen, B. Päivänranta, and N. Passilly, “Fabrication of spherical microlenses by a combination of isotropic wet etching of silicon and molding techniques,” Opt. Exp. 17, 6283-6292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2)

D. W. Sherrer, N. Brese, J. Fisher, C. Gaebe, N. A. Heiks, J. Getz, J. Rasnake, and E. S. Simon, “Wafer-level packaging technology for 10Gbps TOSAs,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Lake Buena Vista,FL, USA, May 2005), pp. 1325-1332.

L.-S. Huang, S.-S. Lee, E. Motamedi, M. C. Wu, and C.-J. Kim, “MEMS packaging for micro mirror switches,” in Proc. Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Seattle, WA, USA, May 1998), pp. 592-597.

Proc. ElectronicComponents and Technology Conference (1)

J. Gates, D. Muehlner, M. Cappuzzo, M. Fishteyn, L. Gomez, G. Henein, E. Laskowski, I. Ryazansky, J. Shmulovich, D. Syvertsen, and A. White, “Hybrid integrated silicon optical bench planar lightguide circuits,” in Proc. ElectronicComponents and Technology Conference (Seattle, WA, USA, May 1998), pp. 551-559.

Proc. Transducers 03, The 12th International Conference on Solid Stale Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (1)

P. Merz, H. J. Quenzerl, H. Bemt, B. Wagner, and M. Zoberbier, “A novel micromachining technology for structuring borosilicate glass substrates,” in Proc. Transducers 03, The 12th International Conference on Solid Stale Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Boston, MA, USA, Jun. 2003), pp. 258-261.

Sens. Actuators A (1)

M. Bua, T. Melvin, G. J. Ensell, J. S. Wilkinson, and A. G. R. Evans, “A new masking technology for deep glass etching and its microfluidic application,” Sens. Actuators A 115, 476-482 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Yamagata, F. Ishizaki, and K. Sugizaki, “Globular glass manufacturing apparatus and method for manufacturing the globular glass,” U.S. Patent 0132752 A1 (2005).

M. Alexe and U. Gosele, Wafer Bonding, Application and Technology (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2004).

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