Abstract

We used video-rate Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) to observe the motion of blood cells in a micro-channel. Video-rate CLSM allowed us to acquire images at the rate of 30 frames per second. The acquired images were used to perform Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), thus providing the velocity profile of the blood in a micro-channel. While previous confocal microscopy-assisted PIV required exogenous micro/nano particles as the tracing particles, we employed blood cells as tracing particles for the CLSM in the reflection mode, which uses light back-scattered from the sample. The blood flow at various depths of the micro-channel was observed by adjusting the image plane of the microscope. The velocity profile at different depths of the channel was measured. The confocal micro-PIV technique used in the study was able to measure blood velocity up to a few hundreds <TEX>${\mu}m/sec$</TEX>, equivalent to the blood velocity in the capillaries of a live animal. It is expected that the technique presented can be applied for in vivo blood flow measurement in the capillaries of live animals.

© 2010 Optical Society of Korea

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2008 (2)

Y.-C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optical sectioning for microfluidics: secondary flow and mixing in a meandering microchannel,” Lab. Chip. 8, 125-133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with multimodal video rate microscopy,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. : Special Issue on Biophotonics 14, 10-18 (2008).

2006 (1)

R. Lima, S. Wada, K. Tsubota, and T. Yamaguchi, “Confocal micro-PIV measurements of three-dimensional profiles of cell suspension flow in a square micro channel,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 797-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. R. Brown, J. M. Macinnes, and R. W. K. Allen, “Micro-PIV simulation and measurement in complex microchannel geometries,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 619-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. S. Park, C. K. Choi, and K. D. Kihm, “Optically sliced micro-PIV using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM),” Exp. Fluids. 37, 105-119 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. W. Park, S. J. Lee, and S. Shin, “Micro-PIV measurements of in vitro blood flow in a micro-channel,” International Journal of Vascular Biomedical Engineering 1, 30-33 (2003).

R. Okuda, Y. Sugii, and K. Okamoto, “Velocity measurement of blood flow in a microtube using micro PIV system,” in Proc. PSFVIP-4 (Chamonix, France, Jun. 2003), pp. 1-7.

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

C. D. Meinhart, S. T. Wereley, and J. G. Santiago, “PIV measurements of a microchannel flow,” Exp. Fluids. 27, 414-419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Toth, G. Kesmarky, and J. Vekasi, “Hemorheological and hemodynamic parameters in patients with essential hypertension,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 21, 209-216 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. J. Lee, P. I. Mowbray, and G. D. Lowe, “Blood viscosity and evaluated carotid intima-media thickness in men and women,” Circulation 97, 1467-1473 (1998).

1997 (3)

E. Fossum, A. Hoieggen, and A. Moan, “Whole blood viscosity, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy blood donors,” Blood Pressure 6, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Ku, “Blood flow in arteries,” Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 29, 399-434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, and A. Malekafzali, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1119-1121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Seki, Y. Sasaki, T. Oyama, and J. Yamamoto, “Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope applied to the cerebral microcirculation in rats,” Biorh. 33, 463-470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. L. Resch, E. Ernst, A. Matrai, and H. F. Paulsen, “Fibrinogen and viscosity as risk factors for subsequent cardiovascular event in stroke survivors,” Ann. Intern. Med. 117, 371-375 (1992).

1991 (1)

R. J. Adrian, “Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics,” Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 23, 261-304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1990).

1981 (2)

T. Cochrane, J. C. Earnshaw, and A. H. G. Love, “Laser Doppler measurement of blood velocity in microvessels,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 19, 589-596 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Haywood, R. A. Shaffer, C. Fastenow, G. D. Fink, and M. J. Brody, “Regional blood flow measurement with pulsed Doppler flowmeter in conscious rat,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 241, H273-H278 (1981).

1969 (1)

L. Dintenfass, “Blood rheology in pathogenesis of the coronary heart disease,” Am. Heart J. 77, 139-147 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

H. Wayland and P. C. Johnson, “Erythrocyte velocity measurement in microvessels by a two-slit photometric method,” J. Appl. Physiol. 22, 333-337 (1967).

1961 (1)

M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” US patent 3013467 (1961).

Am. Heart J. (1)

L. Dintenfass, “Blood rheology in pathogenesis of the coronary heart disease,” Am. Heart J. 77, 139-147 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol (1)

J. R. Haywood, R. A. Shaffer, C. Fastenow, G. D. Fink, and M. J. Brody, “Regional blood flow measurement with pulsed Doppler flowmeter in conscious rat,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 241, H273-H278 (1981).

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

K. L. Resch, E. Ernst, A. Matrai, and H. F. Paulsen, “Fibrinogen and viscosity as risk factors for subsequent cardiovascular event in stroke survivors,” Ann. Intern. Med. 117, 371-375 (1992).

Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. (2)

D. N. Ku, “Blood flow in arteries,” Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 29, 399-434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Adrian, “Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics,” Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 23, 261-304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biorh (1)

J. Seki, Y. Sasaki, T. Oyama, and J. Yamamoto, “Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope applied to the cerebral microcirculation in rats,” Biorh. 33, 463-470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blood Pressure (1)

E. Fossum, A. Hoieggen, and A. Moan, “Whole blood viscosity, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy blood donors,” Blood Pressure 6, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (1)

A. J. Lee, P. I. Mowbray, and G. D. Lowe, “Blood viscosity and evaluated carotid intima-media thickness in men and women,” Circulation 97, 1467-1473 (1998).

Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc (1)

K. Toth, G. Kesmarky, and J. Vekasi, “Hemorheological and hemodynamic parameters in patients with essential hypertension,” Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 21, 209-216 (1999).

Exp. Fluids (1)

J. S. Park, C. K. Choi, and K. D. Kihm, “Optically sliced micro-PIV using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM),” Exp. Fluids. 37, 105-119 (2004).

Exp. Fluids. (1)

C. D. Meinhart, S. T. Wereley, and J. G. Santiago, “PIV measurements of a microchannel flow,” Exp. Fluids. 27, 414-419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. : Special Issue on Biophotonics (1)

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with multimodal video rate microscopy,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. : Special Issue on Biophotonics 14, 10-18 (2008).

International Journal of Vascular Biomedical Engineering (1)

C. W. Park, S. J. Lee, and S. Shin, “Micro-PIV measurements of in vitro blood flow in a micro-channel,” International Journal of Vascular Biomedical Engineering 1, 30-33 (2003).

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

H. Wayland and P. C. Johnson, “Erythrocyte velocity measurement in microvessels by a two-slit photometric method,” J. Appl. Physiol. 22, 333-337 (1967).

Lab. Chip. (1)

Y.-C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Optical sectioning for microfluidics: secondary flow and mixing in a meandering microchannel,” Lab. Chip. 8, 125-133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

R. Lima, S. Wada, K. Tsubota, and T. Yamaguchi, “Confocal micro-PIV measurements of three-dimensional profiles of cell suspension flow in a square micro channel,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 797-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Brown, J. M. Macinnes, and R. W. K. Allen, “Micro-PIV simulation and measurement in complex microchannel geometries,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 619-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

T. Cochrane, J. C. Earnshaw, and A. H. G. Love, “Laser Doppler measurement of blood velocity in microvessels,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 19, 589-596 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. PSFVIP-4 (1)

R. Okuda, Y. Sugii, and K. Okamoto, “Velocity measurement of blood flow in a microtube using micro PIV system,” in Proc. PSFVIP-4 (Chamonix, France, Jun. 2003), pp. 1-7.

Other (2)

M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” US patent 3013467 (1961).

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1990).

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